Place-Names in Landnmabk (Incomplete)

by Brian M. Scott

known in the SCA as Talan Gwynek

2006-2010 Brian M. Scott; all rights reserved.

WARNING: As the title indicates, this article is a work in progress: I am slowly adding more place-names as I find time, and from time to time I revise some of the conclusions as I learn more.

Introduction

In 1948 Einar Arnrsson published an edition of Landnmabk, the Icelandic Book of Settlement, containing all of the four major variants, Sturlubk, Hauksbk, rarbk, and Melabk, as well as several useful indices, including indices of place-names and of burial mounds and sepulchral cairns.[1] I have combined these indices into a single list, to which I have added some etymological and other explanatory notes.

Although he shows all of the variant wordings, Einar Arnrsson chose to normalize the spellings of the original manuscripts. His normalization is a somewhat idiosyncratic combination of normalized Old Icelandic (OIc.) and modern Icelandic (Ic.). For instance, he writes OIc mar 'a human being' instead of Ic maur, but Ic ttt 'a toft' instead of OIc topt. I have therefore changed some of his spellings to suit my own normalization preferences. A typical entry consists of a place-name and the county in which the place is situated, if that is known; places not in Iceland are identified only as being in Norway, Greenland, Sweden, the Faeroe Islands, etc. Etymological and other notes follow in a separate paragraph.

A few words of caution are in order concerning the etymological notes. Most of the Icelandic farm-names mentioned in Landnmabk appear to have transparent etymologies. Arnbjargarlkr, for example, is clearly 'Arnbjo˛rg’s brook'. Most of these obvious etymologies can very probably be taken at face value, but it’s not impossible that some early names that did not fit the naming patterns that developed during the settlement period were subsequently distorted into or replaced by more familiar, understandable forms. Landnmabk explains some of these names as references to specific incidents; an example is the name Dfunefsskei. I have no idea how many of these explanations record historical fact and how many are later explanations of the place-names in question, so I have been careful to offer them only with such qualifications as ‘According to Landnmabk’, ‘is said to have’, and the like. Not all of the place-names are quite so straightforward, however, even on the surface. There are also a few names that can be interpreted in more than one way, and even some that are quite opaque, at least to me: I am far from being a specialist in Icelandic place-names, and in particular I lack the detailed knowledge of Icelandic topography and literature required for a serious study.

Many entries conclude with at least one grammatically correct locative byname based on the place-name in question. Although other types of OIc. locative bynames are known, these are all prepositional bynames: they consist of a preposition expressing location or origin, and a place-name in the appropriate grammatical case, almost always the dative case. The hard part is choosing an idiomatically correct preposition. Typically this choice depends on the final element of the place-name. For instance, place-names in -stair 'places, steads' (but used in Icelandic place-names as if it were singular) usually take the preposition . Some variation is possible, however; for example, one manuscript has at Einarssto˛um instead of the expected Einarssto˛dum that occurs elsewhere. In such cases I have given all of the variants; if there is any reason to think that one preposition is preferred with a particular place-name or its final element, that version is listed first, but otherwise there is little significance to the order in which the variants are listed. (I should note that since locative bynames as such are fairly rare in this source, I have included variants drawn from syntactically comparable constructions, e.g., at Berghyl from Bro˛ndlfr bj at Berghyl 'Bro˛ndlf settled at Berghyl'.)

A Brief Note on Prepositions. The most common prepositions in these bynames are at, , and , all of which imply residence at the named place. Prepositions are notoriously hard to translate, and their correct usage is often a matter of idiom, but some rough generalizations are possible. For example, the basic sense of is 'in', so it tends to be used with place-names denoting woods, holts, dales, islands, fjords, and other topographical features conceived as having an interior. In reference to the place where someone lives, at is quite similar in sense to the identically spelled English word, but it further suggests the notion 'by the side of' and is therefore commonly used with place-names denoting hills, rocks, rivers, streams, and the like. With farm-names suggesting open, slightly elevated settings, on the other hand, the usual preposition is , which is actually cognate with English on and whose most straightforward locational sense is 'on, in'. If a farm lies at the base of a hill, peak, or slope for which it is named, the preposition undir 'under, below' may be used (cf. the English surname Underhill).

The prepositions fr and r (or r) are also moderately common in locative bynames, but to indicate place of origin rather than place of residence: both can generally be translated 'from' in this context. Indeed, fr is cognate with English from. The difference between them is that while fr simply denotes origin, r often has the more specific sense 'out of' and therefore tends to be used with the same place-names with which is used to indicate residence. Thus, for instance, we find both Hrsey 'at Brushwood Island' and r Hrsey 'from Brushwood Island'.

All of these prepositions take the dative case when used in locative bynames. So far I have seen only one locative construction using a preposition governing the accusative case: vi Grmsgil, where vi is 'near, by', and Grmsgil is 'Grm’s ravine with a stream at the bottom'. Had one of the usual locative prepositions been used here, it would most probably have been at, making at Grmsgili (with the place-name in the dative case).

Finally, a word about the counties is in order. The Icelandic word is actually ssla 'district; county', plural sslur. As of 1945 the sslur were as follows, starting in the northwest corner and going across the northern coast of the island ([2], frontispiece):

Now down along the eastern and southeastern coasts to the southern tip of the island: Now up the southwestern and western coasts back to the starting point: The abbreviations in parentheses are those used by Einar Arnrsson. It will be noticed that they do not quite match the sslur from the map in [2]: apparently his Skaft. combines Austr- and Vestr-Skaftafellsssla (East- and West-Skaftafellsssla).

Other Abbreviations

References

[1] Einar Arnrsson (1948). Landnmabk slands. Reykjavk: Helgafell.

[2] Stefn Einarsson (1945). Icelandic. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press.

Other Works Consulted

CV: Cleasby, Richard, Gudbrand Vigfusson, & William A. Craigie (1957). An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd edn. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Gordon, E.V. (1957). Introduction to Old Norse. 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kbler, Gerhard (2003). Altnordisches Wrterbuch. 2nd edn. WWW: http://www.koeblergerhard.de/anwbhinw.html.

Lind, E.H. (1905-1915). Norsk-Islndska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn frn Medeltiden. Uppsala & Leipzig.

Lind, E.H. (1905-1915). Norsk-Islndska Dopnamn ock Fingerade Namn frn Medeltiden. Supplement. Oslo, Uppsala, & Kbenhavn.

Lind, E.H. (1920-1921). Norsk-Islndska Personbinamn frn Medeltiden. Uppsala.

NSL: Sandnes, Jrn, & Ola Stemshaug (1997). Norsk Stadnamnleksikon. 4th edn. Oslo: Det Norske Samlaget.

De Vries, Jan (2000). Altnordisches Etymologisches Wrterbuch. 2nd edn. Boston: Brill.

Zoga, Geir T. (1910). A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press.

Det Kongelige Nordiske Oldskrift-Selskab (1900). Landnmabk. I–III. Hauksbk. Sturlubk. Melabk. Kbenhavn: Thieles Bogtrykkeri.


The Place-Names

Jump to: A B D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S

~A~

(rbr), Rang.
–– Skaft. (farm)

OIc. 'a river'; rbr is from , genitive singular r, and br 'a farmhouse, a farmstead': 'river's farmstead'.
Locative Byname: at

Aalvk, safj. (bay)

From OIc. aal- 'chief, head, principal' and vk 'a bay, an inlet': 'chief bay'.
Locative Byname: Aalvk

Afvaldsnes: see O˛gvaldsnes.

Aganes, Norway.

OIc. nes is 'ness, headland'; Aganes is a large headland on the south side of the mouth of Trondheimsfjord. For the first element see the next entry, for Agir. (NSL s.n. Agdenes)
Locative Byname:

Agir, Norway.

A district in Norway; its inhabitants are called Egir in OIc. The etymology is uncertain, but the name is likely to be from a PIE root meaning 'sharp', perhaps signifying the way that the region sticks out into the sea. (NSL s.n. Agder)
Locative Byname:

Akrafell (Akrafjall), Borg. (mountain)

OIc. akr is 'arable land, field', and fell is 'an isolated hill', but it's possible that in this case Akra- refers to its location in Akranes (see the next entry). In the variant, which is also the modern name, fjall is 'a fell, a mountain'.
Locative Byname:

Akranes, Borg. (ness)

From OIc. akr 'arable land, field' and nes 'ness, headland'; presumably this was an unusually fertile area.
Locative Byname:

Akrar, Mr. (farm)
–– Skag.

The plural of OIc. akr 'arable land, field'.
Locative Byname: at O˛krum, O˛krum

lfgeirsvellir, Skag. (plain and farm)

From the masculine name lfgeirr, genitive lfgeirs, and OIc. vo˛llr 'a field', with no implication of cultivation; vellir is the plural, so the name is 'lfgeir’s fields'.
Locative Byname: lfgeirsvo˛llum

lfsnes, Kjs. (farm)

OIc. nes is 'ness, headland'. The first element is ambiguous: it could be the personal name lfr, genitive lfs, making the name 'lf’s point', or it could be OIc. lfr 'an elf', genitive singular lfs, making the name 'elf’s point', though the personal name is considerably more likely.
Locative Byname: lfsnesi

lfsss, rn. (river-mouth)

From the masculine name lfr, genitive lfs, and OIc. ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake': 'lf’s river-mouth'. This one is named after lfr inn egski (whose byname means 'the one from Agir').
Locative Byname:

ll, Norway.

Now l. OIc. ll is 'a deep, narrow channel in sea or river; a stripe on the back of an animal'; the place-name may refer to a narrow river-valley. It may also be an old farm-name, however, in which case the underlying element may be related to Gothic alhs 'a temple'. (NSL s.n. l)
Locative Byname: l

Almannafljt, Skaft. (river)

The OIc. prefix almanna- has the senses 'public, common, general, universal', as in almannalei 'a public road', almannastofa 'the common hall', almannalof 'universal praise', almannaskript 'general confession'; the associated adjective is almennligr 'general, common'. OIc. fljt is 'a river, a lake', but usually only as a proper noun. The smaller, slower-moving upper reaches of the river were called Raptalkr or, in one source, Toptalkr; here lkr (later lkr) is 'a rivulet, a brook'. Etymologically fljtr connotes a fast-moving stream, lkr a slow-moving brook. It is now the hverfisfljt.
Locative Byname:

Almannagj (Not in Arnrsson.)

For almanna- see Almannafljt above. OIc. gj is 'a rift, a cleft, a chasm'; this is the famous 'Gorge of the Commons' in ingvellir.
Locative Byname:

lmdalir, Norway.

From OIc. lmr 'an elm' and dalir, plural of dalr 'a valley, a dale', so 'elm dales'. I have not been able to identify the region.
Locative Byname: lmdo˛lum

Almenningar inir vestri, safj. (a stretch of coast that was common property)

Almenningar is the plural of OIc. almenningr 'common land, common or public pasture'; in full the name is 'the western common lands'. It was one of the farms built by Geirmundr heljarskinn Hjo˛rs son (see Aalvk), in the custody of his thrall Bjo˛rn; after Geirmund’s death, Bjo˛rn was convicted of sheep-stealing, and his confiscated goods became common lands.
Locative Byname: Almenningum inum vestrum

lpt, Mr. (river)

'Swan River', from OIc. lpt 'a swan' and 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

lptafjo˛rr, Greenland. (fjord)
–– safj. (fjord)
–– Snf. (fjord)
–– inn nyrri, S.-Ml. (fjord)
–– inn syri, S.-Ml. (fjord)

From OIc. lpt 'a swan', genitive plural lpta, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'swans’ fjord'. The modifers inn nyrri and inn syri are 'the more northerly' and 'the more southerly', respectively. lptafjo˛rr inn nyrri is now Hamarsfjrur.
Locative Byname: lptafiri

lptanes, Gullbr. (ness)
–– Mr.

From OIc. lpt 'a swan', genitive plural lpta, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'swans’ point'. The one in Mrassla is explicitly said to have been so named because Skallagrmr Kveldlfs son and his companions saw swans there.
Locative Byname: lftanesi

lptaver, Skaft. (district)

OIc. ver is 'a station for catching fish, taking eggs, etc.'; lptaver is both 'the taking of swans' and 'the place where swans are caught', its sense in the place-name. The place is explicitly noted to have lptaveir 'swan-hunting'.
Locative Byname:

Alvira, safj. (farm)
–– Norway. (farm)

OIc. vira is 'to blow, to be such and such (of the weather)', related to ver 'weather; wind'; the prefix al- has the sense 'all, entirely'. Here the sense is that the winds and weather come from all quarters. The Norwegian place is now Alvera. (NSL s.n. Alvera)
Locative Byname: Alviru

Alo˛st, Norway. (island)

This is the island of Alsta (also Alsten) in Nordland county. The etymology is unknown; it’s been suggested that the name might be from an unrecorded *lvo˛zt, from OIc. ll 'an eel' and vo˛zt 'a fishing-bank'. (NSL s.n. Alsta)
Locative Byname:

Ambttar, Hnv. (river)

From OIc. ambtt 'a bondswoman; a concubine', genitive singular mbttar, and 'a river': 'bondswoman’s river'.
Locative Byname:

nabrekka, Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name ni, genitive na, and OIc. brekka 'a slope': 'ni’s slope'. A man named ni was given the land by Skallagrmr Kveldlfs son.
Locative Byname: at nabrekku

Andakls, Borg. (river)

From OIc. o˛nd 'a duck', genitive plural anda, kll 'a narrow inlet, a canal', genitive singular kls, and 'a river'; the name is 'ducks’ inlet’s river'.
Locative Byname:

Andarkelda, Dal. (swamp)

From OIc. o˛nd 'a duck', genitive singular andar, and kelda 'a well, a spring; a bog, a quagmire', here in the latter sense: 'ducks’ bog'.
Locative Byname:

r, Sweden.

The name is the plural of 'a river'; the location is unknown.
Locative Byname: fr m

Arastair; see Orrastair.

Arnallsstair, S.-Ml. (farm)

From the masculine name Arnaldr, genitive Arnalls, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead'; stair is actually the plural. (The name also occurs as Arnnhallzstair, but this is a scribal attempt to make the unfamiliar masculine name, a borrowing of Continental Germanic Arn(w)ald, look less unfamiliar by giving it a fairly common OIc. second element.)
Locative Byname: Arnallzsto˛um

Arnarbli, Mr. (farm)

From OIc. o˛rn 'an eagle', genitive arnar, and bli 'a den, a lair; a farm, a dwelling', hence 'eagle’s lair'. In principle the name could also mean 'O˛rn’s farm', from the masculine name O˛rn, genitive Arnar, and it was in fact at one edge of the land taken by O˛rn inn gamli; however, he lived at Hreksstair, so 'eagle’s lair' seems the likelier etymology.
Locative Byname:

Arnarfell.

From the masculine name O˛rn, genitive Arnar, and OIc. fell 'an isolated hill': 'O˛rn’s hill'. According to Landnmabk, O˛rn landshornamar lost a sizable bet and was so upset at the loss of money that he killed himself at Arnarfell; the location is unknown.
Locative Byname:

Arnarfjo˛rr, Bar. (fjord)

Apparently named after O˛rn, who took all of the land around it, in which case the meaning is 'O˛rn’s fjord'; the alternative is 'eagle’s fjord', as the common noun o˛rn 'an eagle', genitive singular arnar, is indistinguishable from the masculine name O˛rn (genitive Arnar).
Locative Byname:

Arnarholt, Mr. (farm)

The second element is OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge'; the first is either the genitive singular of o˛rn 'an eagle' or the genitive of the masculine name O˛rn. The fact that orbjo˛rn settled there suggests that holt here is 'a wood, a copse', but one would have to know the terrain to decide safely. The fact that the farm was originally settled by someone not named O˛rn suggests that the first element is the common noun, but the place could have been renamed after a later tenant between its original settlement and the writing of Landnmabk.
Locative Byname: Arnarholti

Arnarhvll, Eyfj. (hill)
–– Reykjavk (hillock)

The second element is hvll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll'; the name is either 'eagle’s knoll' or 'O˛rn’s knoll' (see Arnarfjo˛rr). The name also appears simply as Hvll.
Locative Byname:

Arnarnes, Eyfj. (ness and farm)

See Arnarfjo˛rr for the first element; the second is OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'. The name is probably 'O˛rn’s fjord', but in principle it could be 'eagle’s fjord'.
Locative Byname: Arnarnesi

Arnarfa, ing.

From OIc. o˛rn 'an eagle', genitive singular arnar, and fa 'a mound, a knoll': 'eagle’s mound'. This was apparently towards the western end of the land claimed by Torf-Einarr and two brothers; it was given its name because they set up an eagle there as part of a ritual associated with claiming the land.
Locative Byname:

Arnbjargarlkr, Mr. (farm)

From the feminine name Arnbjo˛rg, genitive Arnbjargar, and OIc. lkr (later lkr) 'a rivulet, a brook': 'Arnbjo˛rg’s brook'.
Locative Byname: at Arnbjargarlk

Arneiarstair, N.-Ml. (farm)

From the feminine name Arneir, genitive Arneiar, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Arnei’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Arneiarsto˛um

Arnlaugsfjo˛rr, Greenland. (fjord)

From the masculine name Arnlaugr, genitive Arnlaugs, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Arnlaug’s fjord'.
Locative Byname:

sar, Skaft. (farm)

The plural of OIc. ss 'a rocky ridge', a metaphorical extension of ss 'a thick pole, a main beam of a house; a yard of a sail': 'rocky ridges'. See also ss.
Locative Byname: sum

sbjarnarnes, Hnv. (farm)

From the masculine name sbjo˛rn, genitive sbjarnar, and OIc. nes 'a ness, a headland': 'sbjo˛rn’s point'.
Locative Byname: sbjarnarnesi

sbjarnarstair, Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name sbjo˛rn, genitive sbjarnar, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'sbjo˛rn’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: sbjarnarsto˛um

sbjarnarvk.

From the masculine name sbjo˛rn, genitive sbjarnar, and OIc. vk 'a bay, an inlet': 'sbjo˛rn’s inlet'. The location is unknown.
Locative Byname:

sgautsstair, rn. (farm)

From the masculine name sgautr, genitive sgauts, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'sgaut’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname:

sgeirs, Hnv. (farm)

From the masculine name sgeirr, genitive sgeirs, and OIc. 'a river': 'sgeir’s river'.
Locative Byname: at sgeirs

shildarmrr, rn. (meadow-bog)

From the feminine name shildr, genitive shildar, and OIc. mrr 'a bog, a swamp, a mire': 'shild’s bog'.
Locative Byname:

skelsho˛fi, Rang. (farm)

From the masculine name skell, genitive skels, and OIc. ho˛fi 'a headland': 'skel’s headland'.
Locative Byname: skelsho˛fa

smundarleii, Snf.

From the masculine name smundr, genitive smundar, and OIc. leii 'a tomb', here probably a burial mound: 'smund’s tomb'. smundr Atla son was buried there in a ship with his thrall beside him.
Locative Byname:

slfsleii, Borg.

From the masculine name slfr, genitive slfs, and OIc. leii 'a tomb', here probably a burial mound: 'slf’s tomb'.
Locative Byname:

slfsskli, Rang.

From the masculine name slfr, genitive slfs, and OIc. skli 'a shieling: a hut or shed put up for temporary use': 'slf’s hut'. There were actually three, all put up by slfr alskikk Konls son: slfsskli inn austasti 'the easternmost', slfsskli inn vestasti 'the westernmost', and Miskli 'mid-hut'. All seem to have became farms.
Locative Byname: at slfsskla

ss, Rang. (farm)
–– inn syri Borg. (district and farm)
–– Skaft. (farm)
–– (Oddsss), Hnv. (farm)
–– ing. (farm)

OIc. ss 'a rocky ridge', a metaphorical extension of ss 'a thick pole, a main beam of a house; a yard of a sail': 'rocky ridges'. For the one in Borg., inn syri is 'the (more) southern'. It’s possible that the one in Skaft. is identical with sar, as both are said to have been settled by Hrarr Tungugoi Una son. The one in Hn. is also called Oddsss, from the masculine name Oddr, genitive Odds.
Locative Byname: si

Atlahaugr, rn.

From the masculine name Atli, genitive Atla, and OIc. haugr 'a burial mound, a cairn': 'Atli’s burial mound', here for Atli Hsteins son. See Haugava.
Locative Byname:

Atley, Norway.

Now Atly. From the masculine name Atli and OIc. ey 'an island': 'Atli’s island'. Atli jarl inn mjvi is said to have died here. (NSL s.n. Atly)
Locative Byname:

Auartoptir, Dal. (temporary farm)

From the feminine name Aur, genitive Auar, and OIc. topt 'a toft, a homestead; a place marked out for a house or building; a square plot of ground with walls but no roof', here in the plural toptir: 'Au’s tofts'.
Locative Byname:

Aubrekka, Eyfj.

The second element is OIc. brekka 'a slope'; the first might be from OIc. aur 'empty, desolate'. The text has Aubrekku, but the index of persons gives it as Auarbrekku; if this emendation is correct, the first element is Auar, the genitive of the feminine name Aur, making the place-name 'Au’s slope', but I've found no other evidence for such a form.
Locative Byname: Aubrekku

Auklustair, Hnv. (farm)

The second element is the plural of OIc. star 'a place, a stead'. The original settler was Eyvindr aukla; auklu is the genitive of his byname. The byname combines OIc. aur 'riches, wealth' and kla 'a knob, a boss, a ball', here in the sense 'a hump' as in klabak 'humpback'. An alternative suggestion is that kla should be understood in the sense 'a hill, a mound', the byname signifying a very rich man.
Locative Byname: Auklusto˛um

Aunar, Rang. (farm)

From OIc. aun 'a wilderness, a desert; an uninhabited and uncultivated tract of land, a waste; a deserted farm or habitation'; the nominative plural is now aunir, but according to Ko˛bler this is an original ō-stem, which would have had nominative plural aunar. Evidently this is one of the many original ō-stems that subsequently changed the nominative and accusative plural ending -ar to -ir. Thus, the name is simply '[the] Wastes'.

The text actually says that sgeirr ... bj ar er n heitir at Aunum 'settled at the place that is now called at Aunum'; the preposition at takes the dative, and aunum is the dative plural of aun, so at Aunum is simply 'at [the] Wastes'. This inclusion of the preposition as part of the place-name is not uncommon.
Locative Byname: at Aunum

Aulfsstair, Hnv. (farm)

From the masculine name Aulfr, genitive Aulfs, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Aulf’s stead(s)'. Aulfr was one of the crewmen of varr inn gamli Ketils son helluflaga, who took a considerable holding and divided some of it among his crew.
Locative Byname: Aulfssto˛um

Ausstair, Borg. (farm)

From the masculine name Aur, genitive Aus, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Au’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Aussto˛um

Auunarstair, Hnv. (farm)

From the masculine name Auun, genitive Auunar, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Auun’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Auunarsto˛um, at Auunarsto˛um

Augastair, Borg. (farm)

The second element is OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair. The original tenant was orgils auga Augasto˛um; Auga- in the place-name is the genitive singular of OIc. auga 'an eye', making the name 'Eyes stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Augasto˛um

Aurria, Borg. (river)

From OIc. aurrii 'a salmon-trout, a brown trout', genitive singular and genitive plural aurria, and 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Aurriarss, Dal. (river-mouth)

From Aurria, genitive Aurriar (see Aurria) and OIc. ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake'.
Locative Byname:

Austfiringafjrungr.

One of the four Quarters into which Iceland was divided, the others being Vestfiringafjrungr, Norlendingafjrungr, and Sunnlendingafjrungr; Austfiringafjrungr was the first to be settled. Austfiringa is the genitive plural of Austfiringr 'man of the Austfirir', i.e., 'man of the eastern fjords of Iceland'; fjrungr is 'the fourth part, a quarter'. The name is literally 'the quarter of the men of the eastern fjords'.
Locative Byname:

Austfirir.

From OIc. austr 'the east' and firir, the plural of fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': '[the] eastern fjords (of Iceland)'.
Locative Byname:

Austrvegr.

Literally 'east way', from OIc. austr 'the east' and vegr 'a way, a road', it refers to the eastern Baltic Sea and the lands neighboring it; fara Austrveg 'to travel the East Way' was a common expression for trading or piratical expeditions in the Baltic.
Locative Byname:

Axlarhagi, Skag. (farm)

From OIc. o˛xl 'a shoulder-joint, a shoulder', genitive singular axlar, here in the metaphorical sense 'shoulder of a mountain', and hagi 'a pasture, a field for grazing': literally 'mountain-shoulder’s pasture', i.e., a pasture on the shoulder of a mountain.
Locative Byname: Axlarhaga, Axlarhaga

~B~

Bakkarholt, Skaft. (farm)

The second element is OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge'. The first is probably from bakki 'a bank (of a river, lake, chasm, etc.); a ridge', genitive bakka, and 'a river', genitive r. What is now the river Bakkarholts 'Bakkarholt(’s) river' was probably originally the Bakka, meaning something like 'ridge(’s) river', and Bakkar is probably contracted from the genitive Bakkar. Thus, the sense of the name is probably 'wood (or perhaps ridge) on the Bakka'.
Locative Byname: Bakkarholti

Balkastair, Hnv. (two farms)

From the masculine name Balki, genitive Balka, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Balki’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Balkasto˛um

Ballar, Dal. (farm)

From OIc. bo˛llr, genitive singular ballar, normally 'a ball, a globe' but here apparently 'a (rounded?) peak', and 'a river'.
Locative Byname: at Ballar

Bar, Bar.
–– Skag. (farm)

OIc. bar 'the verge or edge of a hill' (and other senses).
Locative Byname: fr Bari

Brardalr, ing. (valley)

From the masculine name Brr, genitive Brar, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Br’s dale'.
Locative Byname:

Brargata, Skaft.

From the masculine name Brr, genitive Brar, and OIc. gata 'a path, a way, a road': 'Br’s way'. It seems to have been a (path through) a mountain pass and was so named because Gnpa-Brr Heyangrs-Bjarnar son travelled it; its name had been Vnarskar.
Locative Byname:

Barastro˛nd, Bar.

From OIc. bari 'a kind of ship; baleen whale', genitive singular and genitive plural bara, and stro˛nd 'strand, coast, shore'; possibly this stretch of coast was frequented by whales.
Locative Byname:

Barsnes, S.-Ml. (farm)

From OIc. bar 'the verge or edge of a hill', genitive singular bars, and nes 'a ness, a headland'.
Locative Byname: Barsnesi

Barsvk, safj. (farm)

From OIc. bar 'the verge or edge of a hill', genitive singular bars, and vk 'an inlet, a small bay'.
Locative Byname: Barsvk, Barsvk

Baugsstair, rn. (farm)

From the masculine name Baugr, genitive Baugs, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Baug’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Baugssto˛um

Beigaarhvll, Hnv. (hillock)

From Beigar, genitive Beigaar, the name of a boar, and OIc. hvll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll': 'Beiga’s knoll'. Beigar is supposed to have died on the knoll.
Locative Byname:

Beigaldi, Mr. (farm)

rr beigaldi, also called rir, is said to have lived Beigalda 'at Beigaldi', which took its name from his byname. Beigaldi is otherwise unattested but must correspond to Nynorsk beigall 'sickly, ailing' and is apparently related to OIc. beigla 'to walk clumsily', found in poetry.
Locative Byname: Beigalda

Bekansstair, Borg. (farm)

From the masculine name Bekan, genitive Bekans, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Bekan’s stead(s)'. In Sturlubk he is called Beigan, and his steading Beigansstair.
Locative Byname: Bekanssto˛um

Belgsdalr, Dal. (valley)

From OIc. belgr 'the skin of a quadruped, taken off whole, often used as a bag; a bellows', genitive belgs, and dalr 'a valley, a dale'. The original settler here was lfr belgr; as his byname the word belgr probably had the sense 'belly, paunch', making the place-name 'Bellys valley'.
Locative Byname:

Belgsstair, Dal. (farm)

From OIc. belgr 'the skin of a quadruped, taken off whole, often used as a bag; a bellows', genitive belgs, and star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair. The original settler here was lfr belgr; as his byname the word belgr probably had the sense 'belly, paunch', making the place-name 'Bellys stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Belgssto˛um

Berg, Norway.

OIc. berg 'elevated rocky ground; a rock, a boulder; a cliff, a precipice'.
Locative Byname:

Berghlir, Bar.

From OIc. berg 'elevated rocky ground; a rock, a boulder; a cliff, a precipice' and hl 'a mountainside, a slope', plural hlir (now hlar).
Locative Byname:

Berghylr, rn. (farm)

From OIc. berg 'elevated rocky ground; a rock, a boulder; a cliff, a precipice' and hylr 'a pool or deep place in a river'.
Locative Byname: at Berghyl

Bergrshvll, Rang. (farm)

From the masculine name Bergrr, genitive Bergrs, and hvll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll': 'Bergr’s knoll'.
Locative Byname: at Bergrshvli

Berjadals, Borg. (river)

From OIc. ber 'a berry', genitive plural berja, dalr 'a valley, a dale', genitive singular dals, and 'a river': 'berries’-dale’s-river'.
Locative Byname:

Bersastair, Hnv. (farm)
–– N.-Ml. (farm)

From the masculine name Bersi, genitive Bersa, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Bersi’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Bersasto˛um

Berserkseyrr (Boreyrr), Snf. (farm and spit)

From OIc. berserkr 'a berserker', genitive singular berserks, and eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea': 'berserker’s sandspit' or the like. The place is also called Boreyrr, whose first element appears to be bor 'edge, side, rim, esp. the side of a ship; a board, a plank; a table'. The sense here is probably 'edge', as in 'the edge of the land': de Vries s.v. bor (1) reports a Shetland bord(ek) 'a cape, a headland, a promontory'.
Locative Byname:

Berufell: see Brfell.

Berufjo˛rr, Bar. (fjord)
–– S.-Ml. (fjord)

From OIc. bera 'a she-bear', genitive singular beru, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'she-bear’s fjord'.
Locative Byname: Berufiri

Beruvk, Snf.

From OIc. bera 'a she-bear', genitive singular beru, and vk 'an inlet, a small bay': 'she-bear’s inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Beruvkrhraun, Snf. (lava field)

From the place-name Beruvk above, genitive Beruvkr, and OIc. hraun 'a burnt-out lava field', originally 'a rough place, a wilderness': 'Beruvk’s lava field'.
Locative Byname:

Blds, Eyfj. (river)

From OIc. bldr 'an instrument for letting blood, a lancet', genitives singular blds, and 'a river'. Bldr is recorded as the nickname of O˛nundr bldr Hrars son [or Hraldz son] and his half-brother orgrmr bldr lfs son, after whom Bldsfell was named; it is possible that Blds got its name in similar fashion. (Bldr, genitive Blds, also occurs as the name of a dwarf and as the name of one or two apparently fictional persons.)
Locative Byname: at Bilds

Bldsfell, rn. (farm)

From OIc. bldr 'an instrument for letting blood, a lancet', genitives singular blds, genitive blds, and fell 'an isolated hill'. The original settler here was orgrmr bldr; the exact significance of his byname is uncertain, but the basic idea is 'sharp point'; compare Swedish isbill 'icepick' and plogbill 'plowshare-point'.
Locative Byname: at Bldsfelli

Biskupstunga, rn. (tongue of land)

From OIc. biskup 'a bishop', genitive singular biskups, and tunga 'a tongue of land' (also, as in English, used of the body part and in the sense 'a language'): 'bishop’s tongue of land'.
Locative Byname:

Bitra (Bitrufjo˛rr), Strand. (fjord)

OIc. bitra is attested only in this place-name and the byname of its original settler, orbjo˛rn bitra. It is apparently a noun derived from bitr 'biting, snapping; cutting, sharp; painful, bitter' in the same way that beiska 'bitterness, sourness' is derived from beiskr 'bitter, acrid'; the sense must be 'bitterness, bitingness'. Note that orbjo˛rn is described as illmenni 'a wicked (cruel) man'. Bitra appears in the genitive singular in the longer name Bitrufjo˛rr, whose second element is fjo˛rr 'a ford, a firth, an inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Bjallabrekka, Rang. (farm)

The second element is OIc. brekka 'a slope'; the first is the genitive of bjalli, a word found as the sole or primary element of some 70 place-names in Rangrvallssla but rare to non-existent elsewhere, according to the April 2008 instalment of the rnefni Mnaarins (Place-Name of the Month) feature of Stofnun rna Magnssonar slenskum frum (the rni Magnsson Institute for Icelandic Studies). Its usual meaning is 'ridge, hill, hillock, bump, rocky or craggy elevation, crag, cliff'. The word is related to OIc. bjalla 'a bell' and Ic. blti 'a slope, a hill' and to Norw. dialect bell 'a roundish hump or hill'.
Locative Byname: Ballabrekku

Bjargass (Bragass), Hnv.

From OIc. bjarg 'a boulder, a (large) rock; a precipice or cliff, especially by the sea', genitive plural bjarga, and ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake'; the sense is probably 'river-mouth with precipices'. Possibly the name was a puzzle to the authors of the versions that substitute Bragass, which can readily be interpreted as 'Bragi’s river-mouth', from the masculine name Bragi, genitive Braga.
Locative Byname: Bjargasi

Bjarkey, Norway. (island)

The island of Bjarky(a). Shortened from Bjarkarey, from OIc. bjo˛rk 'a birch-tree', genitive singular bjarkar, and ey 'an island': 'birch island', for an island with a birch wood. (NSL s.n. Bjarky(a))
Locative Byname: r Bjarkey(ju)

Bjarmaland.

From OIc. Bjarmar 'Perms' and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country': 'land of the Perms'. The Perms were a people in Russia.
Locative Byname:

Bjarnardalr, Mr. (valley)

From the masculine name Bjo˛rn, genitive Bjarnar, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Bjo˛rn’s dale'. Raua-Bjo˛rn, the original settler here, is said to have got his nickname because he was the first man to smelt raui 'bog iron ore' in Iceland.
Locative Byname:

Bjarnarfjo˛rr, (1) Strand. (fjord)
–– (2) Strand. (fjord)

From the masculine name Bjo˛rn, genitive Bjarnar, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Bjo˛rn’s fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Bjarnarho˛fn, Snf. (cove)

From the masculine name Bjo˛rn, genitive Bjarnar, and OIc. ho˛fn 'a harbor, a haven': 'Bjo˛rn’s harbor', named after the first settler there.
Locative Byname: Bjarnarho˛fn

Bjarnarnes, safj. (ness)

From the masculine name Bjo˛rn, genitive Bjarnar, and OIc. nes 'a ness, a headland': 'Bjo˛rn’s headland', named for the original settler.
Locative Byname: Bjarnarnesi, Bjarnarnesi

Bjarnastair, Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name Bjarni, genitive Bjarna, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Bjarni’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Bjarnasto˛um

Bjarneyjafli, Bar.

From OIc. bjo˛rn 'a bear', whose underlying root is bjarn-, ey 'an island', genitive plural eyja, and fli 'a marshy moor; a bay, a large firth', but here 'deep water in a bay' as opposed to shallow coastal water; the sense is 'deep water around the Bear Islands'.
Locative Byname:

Bjo˛rgyn, Norway.

Now Bergen, but the form is unexpected: the name is from Bergvin and its variant Bjo˛rgvin, from OIc. berg 'elevated rocky ground; a rock, a boulder; a cliff, a precipice' or bjarg 'a boulder, a (large) rock', plural bjo˛rg 'precipices, especially by the sea', and vin 'a meadow'. The sense is 'meadow by the precipices by the sea'. (NSL s.n. Bergen)
Locative Byname:

Blanda, Blo˛nduss, Hnv. (river, river-mouth)

OIc. blanda, genitive singular blo˛ndu, is 'a mixture of two fluids, especially a beverage made of sour whey mixed with water'; the Blanda is a stream of glacier water, presumably so called for its color. The second element of Blo˛nduss is ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake', making the name 'Blanda’s mouth'. See Blo˛ndudalr, Blo˛nduhl, and Blo˛ndukvslir.
Locative Byname:

Blserkr, Greenland. (hill)

From OIc. blr 'blue, livid; black' and serkr 'a sark, a shirt': 'blue shirt'. The text indicates that there is a glacier, so the name may refer to the appearance of the glacier.
Locative Byname:

Blskeggs (Blskgs), Borg. (river)

From OIc. blr 'blue, livid; black', skegg 'a beard', genitive singular skeggs, and 'a river': 'blue-beard’s river'. The variant Blskgs has as its middle element OIc. skgr 'a wood, a forest', genitive singular skgs: 'blue-wood’s river', probably with the sense 'dark-wood’s river'.
Locative Byname:

Blskgar, rn. (a stretch of heath)

From OIc. blr 'blue, livid; black', skgr 'a wood, a forest', here in the plural skgar: 'blue woods', probably with the sense 'dark woods'.
Locative Byname: Blskgum

Blesastair, Mr. (farm)

The second element is OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair. The original settler here was orbjo˛rn blesi; blesa is the genitive singular of his byname. The byname, which is otherwise unattested, is related to OIc. blesttr 'having a blaze or white mark on the forehead' and Swedish bls 'a blaze' and means 'a white spot on the forehead of an animal': 'Blazes stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Blesasto˛um

Blundsvatn, Borg. (lake)

From OIc. blundr 'sleep, dozing, slumber', genitive singular blunds, and OIc. vatn 'water, fresh water; a lake'; the original settler here was Ketill blundr, and the sense is 'Sleepys lake'.
Locative Byname:

Blo˛ndudalr, Hnv. (valley)

From OIc. blanda 'a mixture of two fluids, especially a beverage made of sour whey mixed with water', genitive singular blo˛ndu, here the name of a stream of glacier water, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Blanda’s valley'. See Blanda, Blo˛nduhl, and Blo˛ndukvslir.
Locative Byname: Blo˛ndudal, older Blo˛ndudali

Blo˛nduhl, Skag. (district)

From OIc. blanda 'a mixture of two fluids, especially a beverage made of sour whey mixed with water', genitive singular blo˛ndu, here the name of a stream of glacier water, and hl 'a mountainside, a slope': 'Blanda’s slope'. See Blanda, Blo˛ndudalr, and Blo˛ndukvslir.
Locative Byname:

Blo˛ndukvslir 209

From OIc. blanda 'a mixture of two fluids, especially a beverage made of sour whey mixed with water', genitive singular blo˛ndu, here the name of a stream of glacier water, and kvsl 'a fork of a river' (and other meanings), here in the plural kvslar: 'branches of the Blanda'. See Blanda, Blo˛ndudalr, and Blo˛nduhl.
Locative Byname:

Blstaar, Skag. (river)

From OIc. blstar 'a homestead, a farm; an abode', genitive singular blstaar, and 'a river': 'homestead’s river'.
Locative Byname:

Blstar, Rang. (farm)

OIc. blstar 'a homestead, a farm; an abode'.
Locative Byname: Blsta

Bolungavk, safj. (cove)

From OIc. bulungr (variant bolungr) 'a pile of logs, firewood', genitive plural bulunga, and vk 'an inlet, a small bay'; the sense is 'firewood inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Boreyrr, Strand. (farm)

The second element is eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea'. The first element appears to be OIc. bor 'edge, side, rim, esp. the side of a ship; a board, a plank; a table'. The sense here is probably 'edge', as in 'the edge of the land': de Vries s.v. bor (1) reports a Shetland bord(ek) 'a cape, a headland, a promontory'. See Berserkseyrr.
Locative Byname:

Borg, Mr. (farm)
–– (Stra-Borg) Hnv.

OIc. borg 'a small, dome-shaped hill' (and other senses). OIc. strr, here in the feminine nominative singular, is 'big, great'.
Locative Byname: at Borg

Borgardalr, Snf. (valley)

From OIc. borg 'a small, dome-shaped hill' (and other senses), genitive singular borgar, and dalr 'a valley, a dale'.
Locative Byname:

Borgarfjo˛rr, Borg. (fjord)
–– N.-Ml. (fjord)

From OIc. borg 'a small, dome-shaped hill' (and other senses), genitive singular borgar, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord,a firth, an inlet'. The first one listed is said to have been named after Borg by Skallagrmr Kveld-lfs son, who settled there and took much of the surrounding land.
Locative Byname:

Borgarholt, (1) Snf. (farm)
–– (2) Snf. (farm)

From OIc. borg 'a small, dome-shaped hill' (and other senses), genitive singular borgar, and holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge'.
Locative Byname: Borgarholti

Borgarhraun, Snf. (lava field)

From OIc. borg 'a small, dome-shaped hill' (and other senses), genitive singular borgar, and hraun 'a burnt-out lava field', originally 'a rough place, a wilderness'.
Locative Byname:

Borgarho˛fn, Skaft.

From OIc. borg 'a small, dome-shaped hill' (and other senses), genitive singular borgar, and ho˛fn 'a harbor, a haven'.
Locative Byname: Borgarho˛fn

Borgarlkr, Snf. (brook)

From OIc. borg 'a small, dome-shaped hill' (and other senses), genitive singular borgar, and lkr (later lkr) 'a rivulet, a brook'.
Locative Byname:

Borgarsandr, Skag. (stretch of coast)

From OIc. borg 'a small, dome-shaped hill' (and other senses), genitive singular borgar, and sandr 'sand; the seashore'.
Locative Byname:

Borgund, Norway. (island)

Borgund in the municipality of lesund, in the county of Mre og Romsdal in Western Norway. The name is from OIc. borg 'a small, dome-shaped hill' and a suffix -und that is very common in Norwegian island names and seems to have meant something like 'well provided with whatever is named by the first element'. (NSL s.n. Borgund)
Locative Byname:

Btarskar (Btarskl), rn. (mountain ravine)

From the feminine name Bt, genitive Btar, and OIc. skar 'a mountain pass; a notch': 'Bt’s pass'. It is said to have been named after Bt, a bondwoman of Ketilbjo˛rn inn gamli Ketils son, who killed her here for stealing an ox laden with silver. However, according to the May 2003 instalment of the rnefni Mnaarins (Place-Name of the Month) feature of Stofnun rna Magnssonar slenskum frum (the rni Magnsson Institute for Icelandic Studies), bt is found as a place-name element throughout Iceland, though with somewhat different meanings in different regions. Since no other instance of the feminine name Bt seems to be known, it’s likely that the explanation is a fiction and that Btarskar actually contains the place-name element, probably in the sense 'grassy hollow, small vale. Indeed, in the alternative name skl is 'a bowl', used as a topographical term meaning 'a hollow'.
Locative Byname:

Botn, Borg. (farm)

OIc. botn 'the head of a bay, firth, lake, or valley'.
Locative Byname: Botni

Botns, Borg. (river)

From OIc. botn 'the head of a bay, firth, lake, or valley', genitive singular botns, and 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Bragass: see Bjargass.

Bramslkr, Bar.: see Brjnslkr.

Brattahl, Greenland. (farm)

From OIc. brattr 'steep' and hl 'a mountainside, a slope': 'steep mountainside, steep slope'.
Locative Byname:

Brattsholt, rn. (farm)

From the masculine name Brattr, genitive Bratts, and OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge'; in an early place-name the sense 'copse' is perhaps more likely.
Locative Byname: Brattsholti

Brautarholt, Kjs. (farm)

From OIc. braut 'a road', genitive singular brautar, and holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge': 'road’s wood', presumably a copse on a roadway.
Locative Byname: Brautarholti

Brvo˛llr. (battle site)

From OIc. br 'eyelash' and vo˛llr 'a field' (with no implication of cultivation); the sense of the compound is not clear.
Locative Byname:

Brei, Skaft. (river)

From OIc. breir 'broad' and 'a river': 'broad river'.
Locative Byname: at Brei

Breiablstar, Borg. (farm)
–– Dal. (farm)
–– Hnv. (farm)
–– Rang. (farm)
–– (1) Skaft. (farm)
–– (2) Skaft. (farm)
–– Snf. (farm)

From OIc. brei 'broad' and blstar 'a homestead, a farm; an abode': 'broad homestead'.
Locative Byname: Breiablsta

Breiafjo˛rr. (fjord)

From OIc. brei 'broad' and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'broad fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Breiamrr, ing. (farm)
–– in eystri rn. (farm and district)

From OIc. brei 'broad' and mrr 'a bog, a swamp, a mire': 'broad bog'. The modifier in eystri is 'the more eastern'.
Locative Byname: Breiamri

Breirsandr, Skaft. (coastal stretch of sand)

From the river-name Brei, genitive Breir, and OIc. sandr 'sand, the seashore': 'Brei’s sands'.
Locative Byname:

Breiava, Hnv.

From OIc. breir 'broad' and va 'a ford, a wading-place across a stream': 'broad ford'.
Locative Byname: Breiavai

Breiavk, N.-Ml. (small cove)
–– Snf. (cove)

From OIc. breir 'broad' and vk 'an inlet, a small bay': 'broad inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Breidalr, S.-Ml. (district)

From OIc. breir 'broad' and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'broad dale'.
Locative Byname: Breidal

Brekka (Fagrabrekka), Strand. (farm)
–– safj. (farm)

OIc. brekka 'a slope'. The first element of the alternative name Fagrabrekka is from OIc. fagr 'fair, fine, beautiful'.
Locative Byname: at Brekku, Brekku

Brekkur (Sumarliabr), Rang. (farm)

Brekkur is the plural of OIc. brekka 'a slope'. Sumarliabr is the older name, from the masculine name Sumarlii, genitive sumarlia, and OIc. br 'a farmhouse, a farmstead'. The text says the place heitir n undir Brekkum 'is now called undir Brekkum'; undir Brekkum is 'under Brekkur', literally 'under or below the slopes'.
Locative Byname: undir Brekkum, Sumarliab

Brenna, Borg. (farm)

OIc. brenna 'the burning of a house or person'. Landnmabk says that in the course of a feud jlfr Karls son burned Kri Klans son in his own house here; the farm, which had been called Klanshlar or Klanshlmar, was thereafter called Brennu 'at the burning in'. (Brennu is the dative singular of brenna; the preposition takes the dative case.) For the more usual meaning of brenna in place-names see Brenningr.
Locative Byname: Brennu

Brenningr, Snf. (farm)

According to the February 2005 instalment of the rnefni Mnaarins (Place-Name of the Month) feature of the Stofnun rna Magnssonar slenskum frum (the rni Magnsson Institute for Icelandic Studies), the name signifies a place where vegetation (woods, brush, dry grass, etc.) had been burned off, deliberately or otherwise; this was probably also the usual sense of brenna in place-names.
Locative Byname: Brenningi

Bretland.

Britain, especially Wales.
Locative Byname:

Brimilsvellir, Snf. (farm)

From OIc. brimill 'a kind of large seal', genitive singular brimils, and vo˛llr 'a field', with no implication of cultivation, here in the plural: 'seal’s fields'. However, brimill was also used as a nickname: the father of one of the settlers was Ketill brimill O˛rnlfs son, and it’s possible that the place is named for him (or even for someone else with the same nickname).
Locative Byname: Brimilsvo˛llum

Brimnesskgar, Skag. (stretch of woods)

From OIc. brim 'the surf', nes 'a ness, a headland', and skgr 'a wood, a forest', here in the plural skgar: 'surf point woods'.
Locative Byname:

Brjnslkr (Bramslkr), Bar. (farm)

From the masculine name Brjnn, genitive Brjns, and OIc. lkr (later lkr) 'a rivulet, a brook': 'Brjn’s brook'. The alternative version appears to be the result of scribal error.
Locative Byname:

Brokey, Snf. (island)

The meaning of brok is uncertain; CV takes it to be 'bad, black grass'. The second element is OIc. ey 'an island'.
Locative Byname:

Brnahaugr.

From the masculine name Brni, genitive Brna, and OIc. haugr 'a burial mound, a cairn': 'Brni’s burial mound'.
Locative Byname:

Brnastair, Skag. (farm)

From the masculine name Brni, genitive Brna, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Brni’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Brnasto˛um

Brynjudalr, Kjs. (valley)

Apparently from OIc. brynja 'a coat of mail', genitive singular brynju, and dalr 'a valley, a dale'. However, some versions say that the valley got its name from a particularly valuable cow called Brynja (genitive Brynju) over whom two men quarreled.
Locative Byname: Brynjudal

Brynjudals, Kjs. (river)

The genitive of the place-name Brynjudalr and OIc. 'a river': 'Brynjudal’s river'.
Locative Byname:

Bardalr, Dal. (valley)

From OIc. b 'a temporary dwelling, a booth', genitive singular bar, and dalr 'a valley, a dale'. The settler Geirmundr heljarskinn Hjo˛rs son spent his first winter in Iceland there.
Locative Byname:

Bardals, Dal. (river)

The genitive of the place-name Bardalr and OIc. 'a river': 'Bardal’s river'.
Locative Byname:

Bland, Skaft. (farm)

OIc. bland 'home land'.
Locative Byname: Blandi, Blandi

Blandsho˛fi, Snf. (headland)

From the genitive of bland (see Bland) and OIc. ho˛fi 'a headland'. Also called simply Ho˛fi.
Locative Byname:

Blandsnes, S.-Ml. (ness)

From the genitive of bland (see Bland) and OIc. nes 'a ness, a headland'.
Locative Byname:

Brfell (Berufell), rn. (farm)

The second element is OIc. fell 'an isolated hill', but the first is uncertain. There is an OIc. br 'pantry; storehouse; women’s apartment', but the August 2002 instalment of the rnefni Mnaarins (Place-Name of the Month) feature of the Stofnun rna Magnssonar slenskum frum (the rni Magnsson Institute for Icelandic Studies) notes the existence of some 47 places named Brfell and seems to suggest that the name is especially associated with isolated steeple-shaped peaks, in which case Br- may have had topographical significance. The first element of the alternative version appears to be the genitive singular of bera 'a she-bear'.
Locative Byname: at Brfelli

Byrgisvk, Strand. (cove)

From OIc. byrgi 'an enclosure, a fence, an enclosed place', genitive singular byrgis, and vk 'an inlet, a small bay'.
Locative Byname:

Bgis, Eyfj. (farm and river)
–– in syri, Eyfj. (farm)

The name is a compound of bgis and OIc. 'a river'. The first element appears to be the genitive singular of an unattested noun *bgir (if masculine) or *bgi (if neuter), making the name 'Bgi(r)’s river'. If this is correct, bgi(r) is probably a nickname related to the verb bgja 'to make one give way, to push; to hinder', the noun bging 'a thwarting', the adjective bginn 'cross-grained', and the first element of the nickname bgiftr 'lame-foot', and a little more distantly to the adjective bgr 'uneasy, awkward'. The modifier in syri is 'the more southern'.
Locative Byname: at Bgis inni syri

Bjarsker, Gullbr. (farm)

From OIc. br 'a farmhouse, a farmstead', genitive singular bjar, and sker 'a rock in the sea, a skerry': 'farmstead’s skerry'.
Locative Byname:

Br, Borg. (farm)
–– Skaft. (farm)
–– Strand. (farm)

OIc. br 'a farmhouse, a farmstead'.
Locative Byname: B

Bo˛mshorn (Bo˛mshraun), Skaft.

From the masculine name Bo˛mr, genitive Bo˛ms, and OIc. horn 'a corner, a nook, an angle' (extended from the original meaning 'an animal's horn'): 'Bo˛m’s horn of land'. The second element of the alternative name is OIc. hraun 'a burnt-out lava field', originally 'a rough place, a wilderness'.
Locative Byname:

Bo˛mstunga, Skaft. (farm)

From the masculine name Bo˛mr, genitive Bo˛ms, and OIc. tungu 'a tongue of land' (also, as in English, used of the body part and in the sense 'a language'): 'Bo˛m’s tongue of land'.
Locative Byname: Bo˛mstungu

Bo˛lfs skytja, ing.

From the masculine name Bo˛lfr, genitive Bo˛lfs, and OIc. skytja 'a little nook, a piece of land in an angle between two others' (and other very different meanings).
Locative Byname: at Bo˛lfs skytju

Bo˛varsdalr, N.-Ml. (valley)

From the masculine name Bo˛varr, genitive Bo˛vars, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Bo˛var’s dale'.
Locative Byname:

Bo˛varshlar, Hnv. (farm)

From the masculine name Bo˛varr, genitive Bo˛vars, and OIc. hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll', here in the plural hlar: 'Bo˛var’s knolls'.
Locative Byname: r Bo˛dvarshlum

Bo˛varsholt, Skaft. (farm)

From the masculine name Bo˛varr, genitive Bo˛vars, and OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge', here probably 'Bo˛var’s wood'.
Locative Byname: Bo˛varsholti

Bo˛varstoptir, rn. (farm)

From the masculine name Bo˛varr, genitive Bo˛vars, and OIc. topt 'a toft, a homestead; a place marked out for a house or building; a square plot of ground with walls but no roof', here in the plural as toptir: 'Bo˛var’s tofts'.
Locative Byname: at Bo˛varstoptum, Bo˛varstoptum

~D~

Dalalo˛nd, Dal.

From OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale', genitive plural dala, and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', nominative plural lo˛nd: 'dale-lands'.
Locative Byname:

Dalir, Bar.
–– Dal.

From OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale', nominative plural dalir: 'dales'.
Locative Byname: Do˛lum

Dalsfjo˛rr, Norway. (fjord)

From OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale', genitive singular dals, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'dale’s fjord'. This is Dalsfjorden in Sunnfjord. (NSL s.n. Dalsfjorden)
Locative Byname:

Dalsmynni, Borg. (farm)

From OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale', genitive singular dals, and mynni 'a mouth (as of a river or fjord)': 'dale’s-mouth'.
Locative Byname: at Dalsmynni

Danmo˛rk.

Denmark.
Locative Byname:

Deildar Rang. (two rivers)
–– Skag. (river)

From OIc. deild 'a dole, a share', genitive singular deildar, used in place-names referring to rivers and other boundary features, and 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Deildarey, Dal. (island)

From OIc. deild 'a dole, a share', genitive singular deildar, used in place-names referring to rivers and other boundary features, and ey 'an island'.
Locative Byname:

Deildargil, Borg. (ravine)

From OIc. deild 'a dole, a share', genitive singular deildar, used in place-names referring to rivers and other boundary markers, and gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom'.
Locative Byname:

Deildarhjalli, Hnv. (mountain ledge)

From OIc. deild 'a dole, a share', genitive singular deildar, used in place-names referring to rivers and other boundary markers, and hjalli 'a ledge in a mountainside'.
Locative Byname:

Digranes, N.-Ml. (ness)

From OIc. digr 'big, stout, thick' and nes 'a ness, a headland'.
Locative Byname:

Dmunarvgr, Dal.

According to the May 2004 instalment of the rnefni Mnaarins (Place-Name of the Month) feature of the Stofnun rna Magnssonar slenskum frum (the rni Magnsson Institute for Icelandic Studies), dmun signifies 'two hills, two eminences' and is a borrowing from the Celtic languages, specifically from something like OIr. d muin 'two upper backs'. (Muin is 'the upper part of the back between the shoulders and below the neck'.) The second element is OIc. vgr 'a creek, a bay'.
Locative Byname:

Djp, Skag. (island)

From OIc. djpr 'deep' and 'a river': 'deep river'.
Locative Byname:

Djpadalr, Djpadalslo˛nd, Eyfj. (farm, its lands)

From OIc. djpr 'deep' and dalr 'a valley, a dale', genitive singular dals: 'deep-dale'. Djpadalslo˛nd is 'deep-dale’s lands', from land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', nominative plural lo˛nd. Here the sense is 'lands associated with the farm Djpadalr'.
Locative Byname: Djpadal

Djpafjo˛rr, Bar. (fjord)

From OIc. djpr 'deep' and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'deep-ford'.
Locative Byname:

Dofrar, Norway.

The word is a plural noun, but the meaning is uncertain. It is thought to be related to djpr 'deep' and to signify something like 'valleys, clefts, fissures'. (NSL s.n. Dovre)
Locative Byname:

Drangaland, Strand.

From the place-name Drangar, genitive Dranga, and OIc. land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country': 'land associated with Drangar.'.
Locative Byname:

Drangar, Eyfj.
–– Snf.
–– Strand.
–– (Lndrangar), Snf.

The nominative plural of OIc. drangr 'a detached pillar of rock'. The first element of Lndrangar is ln 'a lagoon, an inlet'; however, this appears to derive from the byname of Ln-Einarr, who is said to have seen a troll there, and not to the location of the place. The byname itself, however, is from Lnland.
Locative Byname: at Dro˛ngum

Drangavk, Strand. (cove and farm)

From OIc. drangr 'a detached pillar of rock', genitive plural dranga, and vk 'an inlet, a small bay'.
Locative Byname:

Drangshl, Rang.

From OIc. drangr 'a detached pillar of rock', genitive singular drangs, and hl 'a mountainside, a slope'.
Locative Byname:

Drpuhl, Snf. (farm)

Apparently from OIc. drpa 'a heroic, laudatory poem', genitive singular drpu, and hl 'a mountainside, a slope'; possibly the slope in question figured in such a poem.
Locative Byname: Drpuhl

Drfandi, Skaft. (river)

The present participle of the verb drfa 'to drift, to drive', so literally 'drifting, driving', like sand or snow; present participles are also used as agent nouns, so 'driver' and 'drifter' are also possible senses; here it may refer to a waterfall or a rapidly flowing brook.
Locative Byname:

Dritsker, Snf. (skerry)

From OIc. drit 'excrement, especially of birds; dirt', and sker 'a rock in the sea, a skerry'.
Locative Byname:

Drumboddsstair, rn. (farm)

From the masculine name Oddr, genitive Odds, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', nominative plural stair; Drumb- is a byname from OIc. drumbr 'log of wood', probably for a thick, lumpish person. Drumb-Oddr was in the company of one of the original settlers.
Locative Byname: Drumboddssto˛um

Dufansdalr, Bar. (valley)

From the masculine name Dufan, a borrowing of OIr. Dubn, genitive Dufans, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Dufan’s dale'. Dufan was a thrall to n raufeldar Grms son, who freed him and gave him the land.
Locative Byname: Dufansdal

Dfunefsskei.

From OIc. dfa 'a dove, a pigeon', genitive singular dfu; nef 'a nose; a bird's beak or bill', genitive singular nefs; and skei 'a race, a run; a race-course' (and other meanings): 'Dove’s-nose's race-course'. It is said to be named after rir (or rr) dfunef ('dove’s-nose'), who is supposed to have won a horse race here.
Locative Byname:

Dufaksholt, Rang. (farm)

From the masculine name Dufakr, genitive Dufaks, a borrowing of OIr Dubthach, and OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge': 'Dufak’s copse or stony ridge'.
Locative Byname: Dufaksholti

Dufaksskor, Vestmannaeyjar. (rocky rift)

From the masculine name Dufakr, genitive Dufaks, a borrowing of OIr. Dubthach, and OIc. skor 'a rift in a rock or precipice; more generally, a notch, a score'. A thrall named Dufakr is said to have incited his fellow thralls to kill their master Hjo˛rleifr Hrmars son; Hjo˛rleif’s foster brother Inglfr Arnar son (or Bjo˛rnlfs son) is said to have killed all of them here.
Locative Byname:

Dumbshaf, (?)

The second element is OIc. haf 'the sea, especially the high sea, the ocean'; the first is ostensibly from a masculine name Dumbr, genitive Dumbs, the name of a fictitious king after whom the sea is supposed to have been named. The name Dumbr is formally identical to OIc. dumbr 'dumb, mute'.
Locative Byname:

Dyflinn, Ireland.

This is the OIc. adaptation of OIr. Duiblinn 'Dublin'.
Locative Byname:

Dyflinnarskri, Ireland.

From Dyflinn 'Dublin' (see above), genitive Dyflinnar, and OIc. skri 'a district, a province'; apparently the region around Dublin that was under Norse control.
Locative Byname:

Dynskgar, Skaft. (farm)

The second element OIc. skgr 'a wood, a forest', here in the nominative plural skgar. The first appears to be related to dynr 'din, noise', dynja 'to boom, to resound', duna 'to boom, to roar', and duna 'a rushing, thundering noise'; the sense would then be something like 'noisy woods'.
Locative Byname: Dynskgum

Drafjo˛rr, safj. (fjord)

From the masculine name Dri, genitive Dra, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Dri’s firth'.
Locative Byname: Drafiri

Do˛gurar, Dal. (river)

From OIc. do˛gurr 'day-meal', genitive singular do˛gurar, and 'a river'. The day-meal, taken in the morning about 9 a.m., was the main meal of the day; this is one of several places whose names commemorate the first day-meal taken in Iceland by a settler.
Locative Byname:

Do˛gurarnes, Dal. (ness)

From OIc. do˛gurr 'day-meal', genitive singular do˛gurar, and nes 'a ness, a headland'. The day-meal, taken in the morning about 9 a.m., was the main meal of the day; this is one of several places whose names commemorate the first day-meal taken in Iceland by a settler.
Locative Byname:

~E~

Egilsstair, N.-Ml. (farm)

From the masculine name Egill, genitive Egils, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', nominative plural stair: 'Egil’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Egilssto˛um

Ei, Vestmannaeyjar.

OIc. ei 'an isthmus, a neck of land'. (See Vestmannaeyjar.)
Locative Byname:

Eilfsdals, Kjs. (river)

From the masculine name Eilfr, genitive Eilfs, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale', genitive singular dals, and 'a river': 'Eilf’s dale’s river'.
Locative Byname:

Einarsfjo˛rr, Greenland.

From the masculine name Einarr, genitive Einars, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Einar’s fjord'. Now Igaliko.
Locative Byname:

Einarsho˛fn, rn. (landing-place)

From the masculine name Einarr, genitive Einars, and OIc. ho˛fn 'a harbor, a haven': 'Einar’s harbor'.
Locative Byname:

Einarssker, Dal. (skerry)

From the masculine name Einarr, genitive Einars, and OIc. sker 'a rock in the sea, a skerry': 'Einar’s skerry'. Einarr sklaglamm Helga son is said to have drowned there.
Locative Byname:

Einarsstair, ing. (farm)

From the masculine name Einarr, genitive Einars, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', nominative plural stair: 'Einar’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Einarssto˛um, at Einarssto˛um

Einhyrningsmo˛rk, Rang. (wood)

From OIc. einhyrningr 'unicorn', genitive singular einhyrnings, and mo˛rk 'a forest': 'unicorn’s forest'.
Locative Byname:

Eirksey, Greenland. (two islands)

From the masculine name Eirkr, genitive Eirks, and OIc. ey 'an island': 'Eirk’s island'. There were two of them, one near the Eastern and one near the Western Settlement. The reference is to Eirkr inn raui.
Locative Byname: Eirksey

Eirksfjo˛rr, Greenland. (fjord)

From the masculine name Eirkr, genitive Eirks, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Eirk’s fjord'. The reference is to Eirkr inn raui. Now Tunugdliarfik Fjord.
Locative Byname:

Eirkshlmar, Greenland.

From the masculine name Eirkr, genitive Eirks, and OIc. hlmr 'a holm, an islet', here in the plural hlmar: 'Eirk’s islets'. The reference is to Eirkr inn raui.
Locative Byname: Eirksholmum

Eirksstair, Dal. (farm)
–– O˛xney, Snf. (farm)

From the masculine name Eirkr, genitive Eirks, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', nominative plural stair: 'Eirk’s stead(s)'. In both cases the reference is apparently to Eirkr inn raui. The qualifier O˛xney is 'on O˛xney'.
Locative Byname: Eirkssto˛um

Eirksvgr, Snf. (bay)

From the masculine name Eirkr, genitive Eirks, and OIc. vgr 'a creek, a bay': 'Eirk’s bay'. The reference is to Eirkr inn raui.
Locative Byname:

Eldgrmsstair, Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name Eldgrmr, genitive Eldgrms, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', nominative plural stair: 'Eldgrm’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Eldgrmssto˛um

Elduei, Norway.

From the settlement name Elda and ON ei 'an isthmus, a neck of land'; Elda was originally a river-name. The place is now Namdalseid. (NSL s.n. Eldueid)
Locative Byname:

Elliarss, Kjs. (river-mouth)

The first element is OIc. ellii 'a kind of ship with a high poop', genitive ellia, but here it is said to have been the name of the ship in which the settler Ketilbjo˛rn inn gamli Ketils son came to Iceland. The other elements are 'a river', genitive singular r, and ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake': 'mouth of Ellii’s river'. This is said to have been Ketilbjo˛rns first landfall.
Locative Byname:

Elliaey, Snf. (island)

From OIc. ellii 'a kind of ship with a high poop', genitive singular ellia, and ey 'an island'; the island was named for its resemblance to this kind of ship.
Locative Byname:

Eng, Rang. (river)

The second element is OIc. 'a river'. The first is uncertain, perhaps OIc. eng 'a meadow', but it is suggested here (PDF) that the name is an error for Rang.
Locative Byname:

Engihl, Hnv.

From OIc. engi 'a meadow and hl 'a mountainside, a slope'.
Locative Byname: Engihl

Engines, Strand. (ness)

From OIc. engi 'a meadow and nes 'a ness, a headland'.
Locative Byname:

England.

England.
Locative Byname:

Enni, Snf. (fell)

OIc. enni 'forehead', but in the metaphorical sense 'a steep crag, a precipice'.
Locative Byname:

Esjuberg, Kjs. (farm and fell)

The second element is OIc. berg 'elevated rocky ground; a rock, a boulder; a cliff, a precipice'; the first is ultimately from OIc. esja, genitive singular esju, variously glossed 'a kind of clay' and 'a kind of slate', but in this case the proximate source may be Esja, genitive Esju, the name of a mountain.
Locative Byname: at Esjubergi

Eskifjo˛rr, S.-Ml. (fjord)

From OIc. eski 'a place growing with ash trees' and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'.
Locative Byname: Eskifiri

Eskiholt, Mr. (farm)

From OIc. eski 'a place growing with ash trees' or the prefix eski- 'ashen-' and holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge': 'ash-wood'.
Locative Byname:

Espihll inn syri, Eyfj. (farm)
–– inn nyrri, Eyfj. (farm)

From OIc. espi 'an aspen wood' and hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll'; inn syri is 'the southern', inn nyrri 'the northern'.
Locative Byname: Espihli

Ey, Hnv. (island)

OIc. ey 'an island'.
Locative Byname: at Eyju

Eyjafjarar, Eyfj. (river)

From the place-name Eyjafjo˛rr, genitive Eyjafjarar, and OIc. 'a river': 'Eyjafjo˛r’s river, river emptying into the fjord Eyjafjo˛r'. See Eyjafjo˛rr.
Locative Byname:

Eyjafjararstro˛nd in eystri, Eyfj. (stretch of coast)

From the place-name Eyjafjo˛rr, genitive Eyjafjarar, and OIc. stro˛nd 'strand, coast, shore'; in eystri is 'the eastern'. (Another version makes it in nyrri 'the northern'; the fjord opens into the northern coast of Iceland and runs slightly east of due south, so the eastern shore is just barely the northern shore as well.)
Locative Byname:

Eyjafjo˛ll, Rang. (fells)

From OIc. ey 'an island', genitive plural eyja, and fjall 'a fell, a mountain', nominative plural fjo˛ll; they are roughly opposite the Vestmannaeyjar, but I don’t know whether this is the reason for the name.
Locative Byname:

Eyjafjo˛rr, Eyfj. (fjord)

From OIc. ey 'an island', genitive plural eyja, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'islands’ fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Eyjar, Skaft. (river)

From OIc. ey 'an island', genitive singular eyjar, and 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Eyjardals, ing. (river and farm)

From OIc. ey 'an island', genitive singular eyjar, dalr 'a valley, a dale', genitive singular dals, and 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Eyjasandr, Rang. (stretch of coast)

From OIc. ey 'an island', genitive plural eyja, and sandr 'sand; the seashore'. The location isn’t specified, but context suggests the Vestmannaeyjar.
Locative Byname:

Eyjasund.

From OIc. ey 'an island', genitive plural eyja, and sund 'a sound, a strait, a channel'. Context puts it somewhere in Breiafjo˛rr, off the coast of Dalassla.
Locative Byname:

Eyjasveit (Landeyjar), Rang.

From OIc. ey 'an island', genitive plural eyja, and sveit 'a community, a district'. (The text actually has Eyrasveit and Eyjarsveit; Eyjasveit is the editor's index entry.) The region in question is apparently now called Landeyjar; it’s a district in the south of Iceland roughly opposite the Vestmannaeyjar.
Locative Byname:

Eyrar, rn.

OIc. eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea', nominative plural eyrar: 'sandbanks' or 'sandspits'.
Locative Byname:

Eyrarbakki, rn. (trading centre and farm)

From OIc. eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea', genitive singular eyrar, and bakki 'bank of a river, lake, or chasm; a ridge, a bank'.
Locative Byname:

Eyrarfell, Snf. (fell)

From OIc. eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea', genitive singular eyrar, and fell 'an isolated hill'.
Locative Byname:

Eyrarland, Snf.

From OIc. eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea', genitive singular eyrar, and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country'. (At least one version has Eyjarland, with first element as in Eyjar above, but this is an error.)
Locative Byname:

Eyrr, Kjs. (farm)
–– (Hrafnseyri), safj. (farm)
–– (Flateyri), safj. (farm)
–– (Narfeyri), Snf.
–– (O˛ndverareyri), Snf.

OIc. eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea'; in modern Icelandic it has been replaced by eyri, originally the dative and accusative singular. In the modern place-names Hrafns is the genitive of the masculine name Hrafn, and Flat- is from OIc. flatr 'flat, level'. Narf- is from the masculine name Narfi, genitive Narfa; the -a of Narfa has been absorbed into the initial vowel of -eyri. Finally, O˛ndverar is from OIc. o˛ndverr 'fronting, in front of'.
Locative Byname: Eyri

Eystribygg, Greenland.

From OIc. eystri 'more eastern' and bygg 'habitation; settlement, inhabited land': 'Eastern Settlement'.
Locative Byname:

Eystridalr, Skag.

From OIc. eystri 'more eastern' and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'eastern dale'.
Locative Byname:

Eyvindar, S.-Ml. (river)

From the masculine name Eyvindr, genitive Eyvindar, and OIc. 'a river': 'Eyvind’s river'.
Locative Byname:

Eyvindardalr, S.-Ml. (valley)

From the masculine name Eyvindr, genitive Eyvindar, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Eyvind’s dale'.
Locative Byname:

Eyvindarfjo˛rr, Strand. (fjord)

From the masculine name Eyvindr, genitive Eyvindar, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Eyvind’s fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Eyvindarhlar, Rang. (farm)

From the masculine name Eyvindr, genitive Eyvindar, and OIc. hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll', nominative plural hlar: 'Eyvind’s hills'.
Locative Byname:

Eyvindarmli, Rang. (farm)

From the masculine name Eyvindr, genitive Eyvindar, and OIc. mli 'a projecting mountain, a jutting crag (between two fjords, valleys, or the like)', whence the Scottish topographical term mull: 'Eyvind’s mull, Eyvind’s crag'.
Locative Byname: at Eyvindarmla

~F~

Fbeins, Dal. (river)

The last element is OIc. 'a river'. The first, fbeins, appears to be the genitive singular of a word fbeinn, apparently a compound of f- and beinn, but according to the November 2004 instalment of the rnefni Mnaarins (Place-Name of the Month) feature of the Stofnun rna Magnssonar slenskum frum (the rni Magnsson Institute for Icelandic Studies), sgeir Blo˛ndal Magnsson says in his Icelandic etymological dictionary that the origin of the name is unclear. He suggests that fbeinn should probably be interpreted as 'white-footed, white-legged', either a man's byname or a reference to some domestic animal. If so, the first element is from the ON adjective fr 'multi-colored, dyed, shining' (cf. Nynorsk f 'pale, whitish, bleached').
Locative Byname:

Fagrabrekka (Brekka), Strand.

From OIc. fagr 'fair, fine, beautiful' and brekka 'a slope'.
Locative Byname: at Fagrabrekku

Fagradalr, Dal. (valley)
–– N.-Ml. (valley and farm)
–– Skaft. (valley and farm)

From OIc. fagr 'fair, fine, beautiful' and dalr 'a valley, a dale'.
Locative Byname: Fagradal

Fagradals, N.-Ml. (river)

From OIc. fagr 'fair, fine, beautiful', dalr 'a valley, a dale', genitive singular dals, and 'a river': 'fair-dale’s river' (idiomatically, 'Fairdale River').
Locative Byname:

Fagradalsrss, Dal. (river-mouth)

From OIc. fagr 'fair, fine, beautiful', dalr 'a valley, a dale', genitive singular dals, 'a river', genitive singular r, and ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake': 'mouth of fair-dale’s river'.
Locative Byname:

Fagraskgr, Snf. (farm)

From OIc. fagr 'fair, fine, beautiful' and skgr 'a wood, a forest'.
Locative Byname: Fagraskgi

Fagravk, ing. (farm)

From OIc. fagr 'fair, fine, beautiful' and vk 'an inlet, a small bay'.
Locative Byname: Fagravk

Fskrsfjo˛rr, S.-Ml. (fjord)

The second element is OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'. The first, fskrs, appears to be the genitive singular of a word fskr, apparently a compound of f- and skr 'tackle, gear, appendages; an ornament; costly stuff', but the etymology is uncertain. The fjord may be named for the island Skrey, in which case the element f- may be connected with the noun f 'glitter, gleam', referring to the sea foam around the island. Alternatively, fskr may be related to OIc. fskrligr 'meagre, poor' (in which f- is from the adjective fr 'few').
Locative Byname:

Faxass, Gullbr.

From the masculine name Faxi, genitive Faxa, and OIc. ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake'. This Faxi is supposed to have been a Hebridean follower of Hrafna-Flki Vilgerar son, the man who is said to have given Iceland its name. A joke name for the entrance to the large bay Faxafli.
Locative Byname:

Feldarhlmr, Snf. (islet)

From OIc. feldr 'a cloak', genitive singular feldar, and hlmr 'a holm, an islet'. It is said that when Einarr sklaglamm Helga son drowned at Einarssker, his cloak washed up here.
Locative Byname:

Fell (undir Felli), Dal. (farm)
–– (undir Felli), Skaft. (farm)
–– (undir Felli), Strand. (farm)

OIc. fell 'an isolated hill', dative singular felli; undir is 'under, below'.
Locative Byname: undir Felli

Fellshverfi, Skaft. (district)

From OIc. fell 'an isolated hill', genitive singular fells, and hverfi 'a cluster of farms'.
Locative Byname:

Fellsmli, ing. (farm)

From OIc. fell 'an isolated hill', genitive singular fells, and mli 'a projecting mountain, a jutting crag (between two fjords, valleys, or the like)'.
Locative Byname: Fellsmla

Fellsskgar, Dal. (wood)

From the place-name Fell, genitive Fells, and OIc. skgr 'a wood, a forest', here in the plural skgar; the reference is to Fell in Dal.
Locative Byname:

Ferstikla, Borg. (farm)

The first element is OIc. fer- 'in fours'; the second is closely related to OIc. stikill 'the point of a horn', plural stiklar, referring to something pointed or projecting. This farm may have been named for a cross-shaped protective fence or perhaps a square enclosure; see Tlur rnefnum (‘Numbers in place-names’), by Jnna Hafsteinsdttir, on the site of the Stofnun rna Magnssonar slenskum frum (the rni Magnsson Institute for Icelandic Studies).
Locative Byname: Ferstiklu, at Ferstiklu

Fflavellir, Norway.

From OIc. ffill 'a dandelion', genitive plural ffla, and vo˛llr 'a field', with no implication of cultivation, nominative plural vellir: 'dandelions’ fields'.
Locative Byname: Fflavo˛llum

Finnafjo˛rr, N.-Ml. (fjord)

From the masculine name Finni, genitive Finna, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Finni’s fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Finnmo˛rk.

From ON Finnar 'Saami' and mo˛rk 'a forest'. The modern Norwegian is Finnmark, the name of a district in northern Norway, but the ON term was applied more generally to unsettled tracts of mountain and forest inhabited by Saami. (NSL s.n. Finnmark)
Locative Byname:

Firafylki, Norway.

From OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet', genitive plural fira, and fylki 'district, county, shire (in Norway)'. According to NSL s.n. Firdafylke, however, firir, literally 'fjords', is here the name of a people and has the sense 'fjord-dwellers', making the name 'fjord-dwellers’ district' rather than 'district of fjords'. Firir is also used as the name of the district.
Locative Byname: Fjo˛rum

Firir = Firafylki.

Fisk, Rang. (river)

From OIc. fiskr 'a fish' and 'a river': 'fish river'.
Locative Byname:

Fiskilkr, Eyfj. (farm)

From OIc. fiskr 'a fish' and lkr (later lkr) 'a rivulet, a brook', but the compound fiskilkr exists as an independent word, 'brook full of fish, fish-brook'.
Locative Byname: at Fiskilk

Fitjar, Norway.

OIc. fit 'meadow land on the banks of a fjord, lake, or river', nominative plural fitjar; the name is unchanged in modern Norwegian. (NSL s.n. Fitjar)
Locative Byname:

Fjalafylki, Norway.

From OIc. fjo˛l 'a board, a plank', genitive plural fjala, and fylki 'district, county, shire (in Norway)'; apparently the same district as Fjalir.
Locative Byname:

Fjalir, Norway.

OIc. fjo˛l 'a board, a plank', nominative plural fjalir; the exact region denoted by the term is uncertain. The modern Norwegian place-name Fjaler resurrects the defunct ON name but dates only to 1912. (NSL s.n. Fjaler)
Locative Byname:

Fjall (Alpafjo˛ll).

OIc. fjall 'a fell, a mountain'. The reference is to the Alps, Alpafjll in modern Icelandic.
Locative Byname:

Fjarar (Fjar, Fjarr), Skaft. (river)

From OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet', genitive singular fjarar, and 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Fjararhorn, Snf.

OIc. fjararhorn 'a creek at the head of a firth', a compound of fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet', genitive singular fjarar, and horn 'a corner, a nook, and angle'; this is the innermost part of Kolgrafafjo˛rr.
Locative Byname:

Fjo˛ll (Eyjafjo˛ll), Rang.

OIc. fjall 'a fell, a mountain', nominative plural fjo˛ll. (The first element of the modern name is eyja, the genitive plural of ey 'an island'.)
Locative Byname:

Flangastair, Skaft. (farm)

From OIc. flangi 'a lout', genitive singular flanga, here probably someone’s byname, and star 'a place, a stead', nominative plural stair: 'Lout’s stead(s)'. (There is some disagreement as to the exact sense of flangi, CV glossing it 'a coaxer, a fawner', but it’s evidently pejorative.)
Locative Byname:

Flatatunga, Skag. (farm)

From OIc. flatr 'flat, level' and tunga 'a tongue of land': 'flat tongue'. The place gave Kri, the original settler, his byname: subsequently he was known as Tungu-Kri.
Locative Byname: Flatatungu

Flatey, Bar. (island)

From OIc. flatr 'flat, level' and ey 'an island': 'flat island'.
Locative Byname: Flateyju, Flatey

Flateyjardalr, ing. (valley)

From OIc. flatr 'flat, level', ey 'an island', genitive singular eyjar, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'flat-islands’ dale'.
Locative Byname:

Fljt, safj. (district)
–– (Lagarfljt). (river)
–– (Markarfljt), Rang. (large river)
–– (Skjlfandafljt), ing. (river)

OIc. fljt 'a river'. The first element of Lagarfljt is lo˛gr 'still or running water', genitive singular lagar; that of Markarfljt is mo˛rk 'a forest', genitive singular markar; and the Skjlfandafljt empties into the bay Skjlfandi.
Locative Byname: Fljti

Fljt (plural), Borg.
–– (plural), Skag. (region)

OIc. fljt 'a river', nominative plural identical.
Locative Byname: Fljtum

Fljts (= Lagarfljt).

From OIc. fljt 'a river', genitive singular fljts, and 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Fljtsdalr, Mr. (valley)
–– N.-Ml. (district)

From OIc. fljt 'a river', genitive singular fljts, and dalr 'a valley, a dale'.
Locative Byname:

Fljtshl, Rang. (district)
–– ing.

From OIc. fljt 'a river', genitive singular fljts, and hl 'a mountainside, a slope'. Also called simply Hl.
Locative Byname:

Fljtshverfi, Skaft. (region)

From OIc. fljt 'a river', genitive singular fljts, and hverfi 'a cluster of farms'.
Locative Byname:

Fli, rn. (region)

OIc. fli 'a marshy moor; a bay, a large firth'; here the first sense is intended.
Locative Byname: Fla

Flkadalr, Borg. (valley)
–– Skag. (valley)

From the masculine name Flki, genitive Flka, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Flki’s dale'. Flki, an Irish thrall of Ketill gufa rlygs son, is supposed to have taken the one in Borgarfjararssla and been killed there.
Locative Byname:

Flkadals, Borg. (river)
–– Skag. (river)

From the place-name Flkadalr, genitive Flkadals, and OIc. 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Flkavari, Norway.

Now Ryvarden. From the masculine name Flki, genitive Flka, and OIc. vari 'a cairn': 'Flki’s cairn'. (NSL s.n. Ryvarden)
Locative Byname:

Flugumrr, Skag. (farm)

rir dfunef, the original settler, is said to have had a horse named Fluga (genitive Flugu) that died here; the second element is OIc. mrr 'a bog, a swamp, a mire', so the name is 'Flugas bog'.
Locative Byname: Flugumri

Fnjskadalr, ing. (valley)

From OIc. fnjskr 'touchwood', now hnjskr, genitive plural fnjska, and dalr 'a valley, a dale'.
Locative Byname:

Fnjskadals (Fnjsk), ing. (river)

From the place-name Fnjskadalr, genitive Fnjskadals, and 'a river', also shortened to Fnjsk 'touchwood-river'; see Fnjskadalr.
Locative Byname:

Folaftr, safj. (region)

From OIc. foli 'a foal', genitive singular fola, and ftr 'a foot': 'foal’s foot'.
Locative Byname:

Fors, Mr. (farm)
–– Rang. (farm)
–– Skaft. (farm)
–– Snf. (farm)

OIc. fors 'a waterfall'.
Locative Byname: at Forsi

Fors, Borg. (river)
–– Hnv. (river)
–– Kjs. (river)
–– Rang. (river)

From OIc. fors 'a waterfall' and 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Forsfjo˛rr, Bar. (fjord)

From OIc. fors 'a waterfall' and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'waterfall fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Forsvo˛llr, N.-Ml. (farm)

From OIc. fors 'a waterfall' and vo˛llr 'a field (with no implication of cultivation)'
Locative Byname: Forsvelli.

Forsludalr, Hnv. (valley)

From OIc. forsla 'shade from the sun', genitive singular forslu, and dalr 'a valley, a dale'; effectively 'shady valley'.
Locative Byname:

Framnes, rn. (farm)

From OIc. fram, a preposition with the general sense 'forward' (as opposed to 'backward'), and nes 'a ness, a headland'; the sense is either 'headland that juts out' or 'frontmost headland'.
Locative Byname: Framnesi

Frileifsdalr, Skag. (valley)

From the masculine name Frileifr, genitive Frileifs, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Frileif’s dale'. The name Frileifr is unusual in West Norse; this man is said to have had a father from Gautland (approx. western Sweden) and a Flemish mother.
Locative Byname:

Frileifsdals, Skag. (river)

From the place-name Frileifsdalr, genitive Frileifsdals, and 'a river': 'the river running through Frileifsdalr'. See Frileifsdalr.
Locative Byname:

Frimundar, Hnv.

From the masculine name Frimundr, genitive Frimundar, and 'a river': 'Frimund’s river'. From the context it seems likely that it takes its name from the Frimundr who was a thrall of Ingimundr inn gamli orsteins son; he may have been of Swedish origin, as his name is otherwise found only in Sweden.
Locative Byname:

Fr, Snf. (farm and river)

The final element is OIc. 'a river'; the first is obscure to me. The adjective frr is 'learned, well-informed', and fr- in compounds normally has a closely related sense, but this seems clearly inappropriate here. The long vowel is a problem, but perhaps the first element is related to OIc. froa and frau, both 'foam, froth'.
Locative Byname: at Fr

Frrss, Snf. (river-mouth)

From the place-name Fr and OIc. ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake': 'mouth of the river Fr'. See Fr.
Locative Byname:

Flalkr, Skaft.
–– (Fyllarlkr), rn.

From OIc. fll 'foul, stinking' and lkr 'a rivulet, a brook'. The one in Skaft. had come to be known as Jo˛kuls Slheimasandi by the time the texts were written. The other also appears as Fyllarlkr.
Locative Byname:

Fura, Snf. (river)

OIc. fura 'a fir-tree'.
Locative Byname:

Fyllarlkr, rn. (brook)

The second element is lkr 'a rivulet, a brook'; the first is unclear to me, though it may be related to OIc. fullr 'full' and fylla 'to fill'. See Flalkr.
Locative Byname:

Freyjar.

From OIc. fr 'a sheep' and ey 'an island', nominative plural eyjar: 'Sheep Islands'. These are the Faeroe Islands.
Locative Byname:

~G~

Galmastro˛nd (Galmansstro˛nd, Galmarstro˛nd, Gamlastro˛nd), Eyfj. (stretch of coast)

The second element is OIc. stro˛nd 'strand, coast, shore'. The first element appears variously as Galma-, Galmar-, Galmans-, and Gamla- in the several manuscripts; the modern name is Galmastro˛nd, possibly with a variant form Glmastro˛nd arising from lengthening of the first vowel. (Lengthening of stressed /a/ before /lm/ is actually the regular development; Galmastro˛nd retains an older form.) The etymology of Galma- isn't entirely clear, but the element is probably related to a family of glm- words with such senses as 'a knot in thread' and 'to bend, to make uneven', and the sense of the place-name is perhaps something like 'irregularly bent and bowed strand'. The element and various place-names containing it are discussed in the October 2003 instalment of the rnefni Mnaarins (Place-Name of the Month) feature of the Stofnun rna Magnssonar slenskum frum (the rni Magnsson Institute for Icelandic Studies).
Locative Byname: Galmastro˛nd

Galtarhamarr, Eyfj.

From OIc. go˛ltr 'a boar, a hog', genitive singular galtar, and hamarr, literally 'a hammer', but as a topographical term 'a hammer-shaped crag, a steep rock, a precipice': 'boar’s crag'. Helgi inn magri is said to have shot two swine there, a boar called So˛lvi and a sow. The location is unknown.
Locative Byname:

Garar.

Garar is the nominative plural of OIc. garr 'an enclosure, a yard; a courtyard, a court; a house; a stronghold', here in the sense 'stronghold'. This was one of the names of the Scandinavian-Russian kingdom of the 10th and 11th centuries.
Locative Byname:

Garar (Jo˛rundarholt), Borg. (farm)

Garar is the nominative plural of OIc. garr 'an enclosure, a yard; a courtyard, a court; a house; a stronghold'. Apparently the place was originally named after Jo˛rundr inn kristni Ketils son, who settled there, and only later received its present name, after it had become a substantial settlement. See Jo˛rundarholt.
Locative Byname: Go˛rum

Gararshlmr.

From the masculine name Gararr and OIc. hlmr 'a holm, an islet': 'Garar’s holm'. A very early name of Iceland: Gararr Svafars son ins svenska is said to have circumnavigated Iceland and wintered there a few years before the first Scandinavian settlers arrived, speaking very favorably of the island on his return to Norway.
Locative Byname:

Garpsdalr, Bar. (farm and valley)

From the masculine name Garpr, genitive Garps, in this case borne by an ox, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': Garp’s dale. The name is from OIc. garpr 'a bold and warlike man; a bravo', which is found as a byname.
Locative Byname: Garpsdal

Gata, Faeroe Islands. (farm)

OIc. gata 'a path, a way, a road'.
Locative Byname: Go˛tu

Gaular, an old district in Norway.

The plural of Gaula, a river-name.
Locative Byname:

Gaulverjabr, rn. (farm)

From OIc. Gaulverjar 'men of Gaular', genitive plural Gaulverja, and br 'a farmhouse, a farmstead': 'farm of the men from Gaular'. The original settler was Loptr Orms son, who came to Iceland from Gaular.
Locative Byname: Gaulverjarb

Gautland, Sweden.

The land of the Gautar, generally identified with the Geats of Beowulf. Modern Go˛taland, comprising the historical Swedish provinces of Vstergo˛tland and O˛stergo˛tland.
Locative Byname:

Gautsdalr, Hnv. (side valley and farm)

From the masculine name Gautr, genitive Gauts, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Gaut’s dale'.
Locative Byname:

Geiradalr, Bar. (valley)

From the masculine name Geiri, genitive Geira, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Geiri’s dale'.
Locative Byname: Geiradal

Geirastair, Bar. (farm)
–– Hnv. (farm)
–– ing. (farm)

From the masculine name Geiri, genitive Geira, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', nominative plural stair: Geiri’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Geirasto˛um, Geirasto˛um

Geirhildarvatn, Shetland. (lake)

From the feminine name Geirhildr, genitive Geirhildar, and OIc. vatn 'water, fresh water; a lake': 'Geirhild’s lake'. Geirhildr Flka dttir is said to have perished in this body of water.
Locative Byname:

Geirland, Skaft. (farm)

The second element is OIc. land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country'; the first seems likely to be akin to geiri 'a gore, a triangular strip', in Orkney 'a triangular piece of land', and geirr 'a spear'. Cf. Geirvo˛r.
Locative Byname: Geirlandi, Geirlandi

Geirlands, Skaft. (river)

From the place-name Geirland, genitive Geirlands, and OIc. 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Geirmundarstair, Dal. (farm)
–– (Smundarstair), Skag. (farm)
–– Strand. (farm)

From the masculine name Geirmundr, genitive Geirmundar, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', nominative plural stair: Geirmund’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Geirmundarsto˛um

Geirmundarvgr, Dal. (bay)

From the masculine name Geirmundr, genitive Geirmundar, and OIc. vgr 'a creek, a bay': 'Geirmund’s bay'.
Locative Byname:

Geirlfsgnpr, Strand. (promontory)

From the masculine name Geirlfr, genitive Geirlfs, and OIc. gnpr 'a peak, an overhanging peak': 'Geirlf’s peak'.
Locative Byname: undir Geirlfsgnpi

Geirs, Borg. (river)

From the masculine name Geirr, genitive Geirs, and OIc. 'a river': 'Geir’s river'. The river may be named for Geirr inn augi Ketils son blunds
Locative Byname:

Geirshl, Borg. (farm)

From the masculine name Geirr, genitive Geirs, and OIc. hl 'a mountainside, a slope': 'Geir’s slope'.
Locative Byname: Geirshl

Geirshlmr, Borg. (holm)

From the masculine name Geirr, genitive Geirs, and OIc. hlmr 'a holm, an islet': 'Geir’s holm'.
Locative Byname:

Geirvo˛r, Snf. (landslide)

The second element appears to be OIc. vo˛r 'a fenced-in landing place'; the first seems likely to be akin to geiri 'a gore, a triangular strip', in Orkney 'a triangular piece of land', and geirr 'a spear'. Cf. Geirland.
Locative Byname:

Geirjfsfjo˛rr, safj. (fjord)

From the masculine name Geirjfr, genitive Geirjfs, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Geirjf’s fjord'.
Locative Byname: Geirjfsfiri

Geitland, Borg. (hilly region and farm)

Apparently from OIc. geit 'a goat' and land 'land (as opposed to sea)'.
Locative Byname: Geitlandi

Gerpir, S.-Ml. (headland)

Formally identical to the byname gerpir, which is a derivative of garpr 'a bold, dauntless man'; Gerpir is the easternmost spit of Iceland, rising very steeply from the sea to a height of 661 metres.
Locative Byname:

Gil, Borg.

The plural of OIc. gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom', which is identical to the singular.
Locative Byname:

Gil: see Gilj.

Gilhagi, Skag. (farm)

From OIc. gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom' and hagi 'a pasture, a field for grazing', presumably for a pasture near such a gully, or with one running through it.
Locative Byname:

Gilj, Hnv. (river and farm)
–– (Gils), S.-Ml. (brook)
–– Skag.

From OIc. gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom' and 'a river'; gilj- appears to be contracted from gilja, the genitive plural of gil, though it might be simply a combining form. In the variant Gils, gils is the genitive singular of gil.
Locative Byname: at Gilj

Gils: see Gilj.

Gilsbakki, Mr. (farm)

Apparently from OIc. gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom', genitive singular gils, and bakki 'bank of a river, lake, or chasm; a ridge, a bank': 'gully’s bank'. The first element could also be from the masculine name Gils, genitive also Gils, from earlier Gsl.
Locative Byname: Gilsbakka

Gilsfjo˛rr, Bar. (fjord)

From the masculine name Gils, genitive also Gils, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Gils’s fjord'. Gils is a later variant of the name Gsl.
Locative Byname:

Gslavo˛tn (Gslavatn), Mr. (lake)

From the masculine name Gsli, genitive Gsla, and OIc. vatn 'water, fresh water; a lake', nominative plural vo˛tn: 'Gsli’s lake(s)', said to be named after Gsli orbjarnar son at Melum.
Locative Byname:

Glaumsteinn, Sweden.

The second element is OIc. steinn 'a stone, a boulder, a rock'; the first is perhaps related to OIc. glaumr 'noisy merriment' and glymja 'to dash noisily, to splash, to clatter, to rattle'.
Locative Byname:

Gler nyrri and Gler syri, Eyfj. (farms)

Apparently from OIc. gler 'glass' and 'a river': 'Glass River'. The affixes nyrri and syri are '(the) more northern' and '(the) more southern', respectively.
Locative Byname: at Gler inni syri, at Gler inni nyrri

Gljfr, Mr. (river)
–– Skag. (river)

From OIc. gljfr 'rocky (sides of a) ravine' and 'a river': 'river in a ravine or chasm'.
Locative Byname:

Glafeykis, Skag. (river)

From Glafeykir, genitive Glafeykis, the name of a mountain, and OIc. 'a river': 'Glafeykir’s river'. Glafeykir is from OIc. gl 'red-hot embers', genitive plural gla, and *feykir, a nomen agentis from feykja 'to blow, to toss'; the sense is 'the one that casts hot embers'. The ONorw cognate Glafykir is the source of the Norwegian place-name Glofykje. (NSL s.n. Glofykje)
Locative Byname:

Gnp, Snf. (river)

From OIc. gnpr 'a peak, an overhanging peak' and 'a river': 'peak river'.
Locative Byname:

Gnpar, rn. (farm)
–– Skaft. (farm)

This is the nominative plural of OIc. gnpr 'a peak, an overhanging peak. Gnpa-Barr Heyangrs-Bjarnar son is said to have got his byname because he settled at Gnpar in Skaftafellsssla.
Locative Byname: at Gnpum, Gnpum

Gnpr (undir Gnpi), Hnv. (farm)
–– Rang.
–– S.-Ml.

OIc. gnpr 'a peak, an overhanging peak'.
Locative Byname: undir Gnpi

Gnpudalr, Snf. (valley)

From the OIc. byname gnpa 'stooping', genitive singular gnpu, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Gnpa’s valley'. The valley apparently takes its name from the original settler, rr gnpa Odds son, but using his byname instead of his forename.
Locative Byname:

Gnpufell, Eyfj. (farm)

The second element is OIc. fell 'an isolated hill'; the first appears to be the genitive singular of the byname gnpa 'stooping', as in the case of Gnpudalr, but I have no information connecting any bearer of that byname with the place.
Locative Byname: Gnpufelli

Gnpverjahreppr, rn.

OIc. hreppr is 'a poor-law district', and Gnpverja is the genitive of Gnpverjar; this is literally '(the) Gnpverjar’s poor-law district'. Gnpverjar itself is a compound; Gnp- is from gnpr 'a peak, an overhanging peak', and verjar is from verr 'a husband', nominative plural verar 'men'. The variant nominative plural -verjar is found as the second element of such compounds as Rmverjar 'Romans', Vkverjar 'men of the district Vk in Norway', and Manverjar 'the Manxmen'; in general the X-verjar are 'the men of X', and in particular, the Gnpverjar are the 'men of the peak'.

Note that this sense of hreppr postdates the introduction of Christianity; either the name is an anachronism in Landnmabk, or the word originally had a somewhat different sense.
Locative Byname:

Godalir (Gudalir), Skag. (farm)

The second element is the plural of OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale'. On the face of it the first element is OIc. go 'a god', later (and especially in reference to the Christian god) gu, making the compound 'god valleys', but the significance is unclear, and this obvious interpretation may be incorrect.
Locative Byname: Godo˛lum

Gotalkr, Snf. (farm)

From the masculine name Goti, genitive Gota, and OIc. lkr (later lkr) 'a rivulet, a brook': 'Goti’s brook'.
Locative Byname: at Gotalk

Grenitrsnes, Bar. (ness)

From OIc. greni 'pine', tr 'a tree', genitive singular trs, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'pine-tree’s point'. Landnmabk says that Hallsteinn rlfs son mostrarskeggs sacrificed to Thor, desiring that the god send him high-seat pillars; in due course a tree large enough to provide high-seat pillars for nearly every farm in verfirir drifted ashore here.
Locative Byname:

Grenivk, ing. (inlet)

From OIc. greni 'pine' and vk 'an inlet, a small bay'.
Locative Byname:

Grenjaarstair, ing. (farm)

From the masculine name Grenjar, genitive Grenjaar, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: Grenjar’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Grenjaarsto˛um

Grenmarr, Norway.

An old name for Langesundsfjorden in Telemark. The second element is OIc. marr 'the sea'; the first is from an ethnonym for a people called grannii by Jordanes ca. 550. (NSL s.n. Grenmar)
Locative Byname:

Grettisgeil, rn. (small valley)

From the masculine name Grettir, genitive Grettis, and OIc. geil 'a narrow glen': 'Grettir’s narrow glen'.
Locative Byname:

Grms, rn. (river)
–– Borg. (river)
–– Skaft. (river)

From the masculine name Grmr, genitive Grms, and OIc. 'a river': Grmr’s river'.
Locative Byname:

Grmsrss, Borg. (river-mouth)

From the river-name Grms and OIc. ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake': 'mouth of the river Grms'.
Locative Byname:

Grmsdalr, Myr. (valley)

From the masculine name Grmr, genitive Grms, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': Grm’s valley'.
Locative Byname:

Grmsey, Strand. (island)

From the masculine name Grmr, genitive Grms, and OIc. ey 'an island': Grm’s island'.
Locative Byname:

Grmsgil, Borg. (ravine and farm)

From the masculine name Grmr, genitive Grms, and OIc. gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom': 'Grm’s ravine with a stream at the bottom'.
Locative Byname: vi Grmsgil. Note that the preposition vi takes the accusative case.

Grmsnes, rn. (region)

From the masculine name Grmr, genitive Grms, and OIc. nes 'a ness, a headland': Grm’s point'.
Locative Byname: Grmsnesi

Grmlfsvo˛tn, safj.

From the masculine name Grmlfr ~ Grmlfr and OIc. vatn 'water, fresh water; a lake', here in the plural vo˛tn '(large) streams, waters': Grmlf’s waters'. Grmlfr Unasdal was killed near here.
Locative Byname:

Grindalkr, Hnv. (brook)

The second element is OIc. lkr (later lkr) 'a rivulet, a brook'; the first is the genitive plural and combining form of grind 'a gate made of spars or bars; a fence; a lattice', in place-names also 'hedge, fence; gate; cliff face, craggy fence', here probably identifying the brook by reference to a local topographical feature.
Locative Byname:

Grindavk, Gullbr. (inlet)

The second element is OIc. vk 'an inlet, a small bay'; the first is the genitive plural and combining form of grind 'a gate made of spars or bars; a fence; a lattice', in place-names also 'hedge, fence; gate; cliff face, craggy fence', but its precise significance here is uncertain.
Locative Byname:

Grindill (Grillir), Skag. (farm)

In some manuscripts the name appears as Grilli, and there are examples of this form from the 15th century, and Grillir has for some time been the most common spoken form, but it is likely that Grindill represents the original form. The dative case, used after many common locative prepositions, is Grindli, and a development () Grindli > *Grinli > Grilli would be very natural. The original significance is uncertain; the name may refer to sandy or gravelly soil (cf. Low German grind 'gravel'). See Svavar Sigmundsson, Hva ir ori Grindill og hvaan kemur a? (‘What does the word Grindill signify, and where does it come from?’).
Locative Byname: Grindli

Grindr, Borg. (region)

Obscure. Its appearance in the prepositional phrase um Grindr shows that Grindr is the accusative as well as the nominative case and hence that the final -r is part of the root, not an inflectional suffix; the name is therefore distinct from grind 'a gate made of spars or bars; a fence; a lattice', in place-names also 'hedge, fence; gate; cliff face, craggy fence', but it may be related somehow.
Locative Byname:

Grsartunga, Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name Grss, genitive Grsar, and OIc. tunga 'a tongue of land': 'Grs’s tongue of land'.
Locative Byname: Grsartungu

Grjt, Mr. (river)
–– Skag. (river)

From OIc. grjt 'stones' and 'a river'; the sense is 'rocky river'.
Locative Byname:

Grjtvallarmli, Dal. (ridge)

From OIc. grjt 'stones', vo˛llr 'a field, (level) ground', genitive singular vallar, and mli 'a projecting mountain or headland, a jutting crag (between two fjords, valleys, or the like)'; the sense is something like 'stony field’s headland'.
Locative Byname:

Grnes, Bar. (ness)

The second element is OIc. nes 'a ness, a headland'; I am inclined to think that the first is a reduced form of Gru, the genitive of the feminine name Gra, making the name 'Gra’s point', especially since one version of does give the name as Grunes. This spelling is also found in an 1816 census of Barastrandarssla (PDF).
Locative Byname:

Grustair, Hnv.

From the feminine name Gra, genitive Gru, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Gra’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Grusto˛um

Grund, Eyfj. (farm)
–– Hnv. (farm)

OIc. grund 'green field, grassy plain'.
Locative Byname: Grund

Grunnafjo˛rr, Borg. (inlet)

From OIc. grunnr 'shallow' and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'shallow fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Grn(a)land, i.e., Greenland.

From OIc. grnn 'green; fresh' and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country': 'green land'. Eirkr inn raui orvalds son is said to have given it the name, saying that people would be more eager to go there if the land had an attractive name.
Locative Byname:

Grnavatn, ing. (lake and farm)

From OIc. grnn 'green; fresh' and vatn 'water, fresh water; a lake': 'green water'.
Locative Byname: at Grnavatni

Grningr, Norway.

From OIc. grnn 'green; fresh' and a derivational suffix -ing- that can be added to a noun or adjective X to form a place-name meaning something like 'place characterized by X'. The place-name does not actually occur in Landnmabk; rather, it is inferred from the byname of runn Grningarrjpa 'Grningr ptarmigan'. There are several places in Norway named Grnningen, which derives from Grningr either by addition of the postposed definite article or perhaps by composition with OIc. eng 'a meadow'. (NSL s.n. Grnningen)
Locative Byname:

Gro˛f, Mr. (farm)

OIc. gro˛f 'a pit, a ditch; a grave'.
Locative Byname: Gro˛f

Gubrandsstair, Hnv.

From the masculine name Gubrandr and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Gubrand’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Gubrandssto˛um

Gudalir: see Goddalir.

Gulaugsho˛fi, Strand. (headland)

From the masculine name Gulaugr and OIc. ho˛fi 'a headland': 'Gulaug’s headland'.
Locative Byname:

Guf(u), Mr. (river)

The second element is OIc. 'a river'. In Landnmabk the name is associated with a person called Gufa; this looks like a feminine name whose genitive would be Gufu, so that Gufu could be interpreted as 'Gufa’s river'. (The corresponding masculine name would be Gufi, and indeed a Gufi Ketils son is mentioned in very close proximity.) However, this Gufa is clearly identified as male. One possible solution is suggested by the name Ketill gufa rlygs son, in which gufa appears as a byname: perhaps the person called Gufa bore the same byname and was known by it. Chapter 77 of Egils saga Skall-Grmssonar says explicitly that Gufudalr and Gufufjo˛rr were named after this Ketill gufa, and the context suggests that the same is true of Guf(u), Gufunes, and Gufusklar. It is entirely possible, however, that the first element in all of these names is simply OIc. gufa 'vapor, steam', genitive singular and combining form gufu, from the steam of hot wells.
Locative Byname:

Gufrss, Mr. (river-mouth)

From Guf, genitive Gufr (see Guf(u)) and OIc. ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake': 'mouth of the river Guf.
Locative Byname:

Gufudalr, Bar. (valley)

The second element is OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale'; for the first see Guf(u).
Locative Byname: Gufudal

Gufufjo˛rr, Bar. (fjord)

The second element is OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'; for the first see Guf(u).
Locative Byname:

Gufunes, Kjs. (small ness)

The second element is OIc. nes 'a ness, a headland'; for the first see Guf(u).
Locative Byname: Gufunesi

Gufusklar, Borg.
–– Gullbr.
–– Snf.

The second element is the plural of OIc. skli 'a shieling: a hut or shed put up for temporary use'; for the first see Guf(u).
Locative Byname: at Gufusklum

Gullberastair, Borg. (farm)

The second element is the plural of OIc. star 'a place, a stead'. The original settler here was Bjo˛rn gullberi; gullbera is the genitive of his byname: 'Gullberi’s stead(s)'. The byname itself is 'gold-bearer', a compound of OIc. gull 'gold' and beri 'a bearer'.
Locative Byname: Gullberasto˛um

Gunnarsholt, Rang. (farm)

From the masculine name Gunnarr, genitive Gunnars, and OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge': 'Gunnarr’s wood'.
Locative Byname: Gunnarsholti

Gunnbjarnarsker (skerry)

From the masculine name Gunnbjo˛rn, genitive Gunnbjarnar, and OIc. sker 'a rock in the sea, a skerry': 'Gunnbjo˛rn’s skerry'. It is said to have been named for Gunnbjo˛rn son lfs krku.
Locative Byname:

Gunnlaugsstair, Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name Gunnlaugr, genitive Gunnlaugs, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Gunnbjo˛rn’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Gunnlaugssto˛um

Gunnlfs, Eyfj. (farm)

From the masculine name Gunnlfr, genitive Gunnlfs, and OIc. 'a river': 'Gunnlf’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: at Gunnlfs, Gunnlfs

Gunnlfsfell, N.-Ml. (fell)

From the masculine name Gunnlfr, genitive Gunnlfs, and OIc. fell 'an isolated hill': 'Gunnlf’s isolated hill'.
Locative Byname:

Gunnlfsvk, N.-Ml. (inlet)

From the masculine name Gunnlfr, genitive Gunnlfs, and OIc. vk 'an inlet, a small bay': 'Gunnlf’s inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Gunnsteinar, ing.

Apparently from OIc. gunnr 'battle, war' and OIc. steinn 'a stone, a boulder, a rock', here in the plural steinar; if so, the name is 'battle-stones'.
Locative Byname:

Gunnsteinsstair, Hnv. (farm)

From the masculine name Gunnsteinn, genitive Gunnsteins, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Gunnstein’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: at Gunnsteinssto˛um, Gunnsteinssto˛um

Ggjarspors, safj. (river)

From OIc. ggr 'giantess, a hag', genitive singular ggjar, spor 'a track, a footprint', genitive singular spors, and 'a river': 'hag’s track’s river'.
Locative Byname:

Gyldarhagi (Galdrahagi), rn.

The second element is OIc. hagi 'a pasture, a field for grazing'; the first is uncertain. Galdra- is the combining form of OIc. galdrar 'witchcraft, sorcery', plural of galdr 'a magic song, a charm', but it appears to be an error for Gyldar-; Gyldar-, unfortunately, has no obvious etymology.
Locative Byname:

Go˛nguskar, Skag. (pass)

From OIc. ganga 'a walking', combining form go˛ngu-, and skar 'a mountain pass; a notch'.
Locative Byname: Go˛nguskari

Go˛nguskars, Go˛nguskarsrss, Skag. (river, river-mouth)

From the place-name Go˛nguskar, OIc. 'a river', genitive r, and ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake': 'Go˛nguskar river' and 'mouth of the Go˛nguskar river'.
Locative Byname:

~H~

Haddingjadalr, Norway.

The second element is OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale'. The first is ultimately from OIc. haddr 'a woman’s hair', but its immediate source is uncertain. Haddingja may be the genitive plural of an ethnonym Haddingjar, more or less 'the long-hairs', in which case the place-name is 'valley of the Haddingjar'. Alternatively, it could perhaps be the genitive singular of an unattested masculine name Haddingi, making the place-name 'Hadding’s valley'. The modern form, with ll for older dd, is first seen as hi Halliggadal 'in Halli(n)ggadal' in a document, DN X, Nr. 178, dated 1443. (NSL s.n. Hallingdal)
Locative Byname: r Haddingjadal

Hafgrmsfjo˛rr, Greenland. (fjord)

From the masculine name Hafgrmr, genitive Hafgrms, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Hafgrm’s fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Hafnarfjall (Hafnarfjo˛ll), Borg.

From OIc. ho˛fn 'a harbor, a haven', genitive singularhafnar, and fjall 'a fell, a mountain' (or its plural fjo˛ll): 'harbor(’s) mountain(s)'.
Locative Byname:

Hafnarfjo˛rr, Gullbr. (fjord)

From OIc. ho˛fn 'a harbor, a haven', genitive singularhafnar, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'harbor(’s) fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Hafnarlo˛nd, Borg.

From OIc. ho˛fn 'a harbor, a haven', genitive singularhafnar, and land 'land (as opposed to sea)', nominative plural lo˛nd: 'harbor(’s) lands'.
Locative Byname:

Hafnarss (ss), ing.

From OIc. ho˛fn 'a harbor, a haven', genitive singular hafnar, and ss 'a mouth or outlet of a river or lake': 'harbor(’s) river-mouth'. (Of course ss is simply 'river-mouth'.)
Locative Byname:

Hfr, Rang. (farm)

Probably OIc. hfr 'a bag-shaped net for catching fish': maps show it as being beside a long, bag-shaped inlet. (Cf. reykhfr 'a chimney-pot', from reykr 'smoke, steam' and hfr.) Connection with hfr 'a dogfish' seems less likely.
Locative Byname: Hfi

Hafrafell, Bar. (fell)

From OIc. hafr 'a he-goat, a buck', genitive plural hafra, and fell 'an isolated hill': 'goats’ hill'.
Locative Byname:

Hafragil, Dal. (farm?)

From OIc. hafr 'a he-goat, a buck', genitive plural hafra, and gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom': 'goats’ ravine'.
Locative Byname: fr Hafragili

Hafranes, S.-Ml. (ness)

From OIc. hafr 'a he-goat, a buck', genitive plural hafra, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'goats’ point'.
Locative Byname: Hafranesi

Hafrs, Skaft. (river)

From OIc. hafr 'a he-goat, a buck', genitive plural hafra, and 'a river': 'goats’ river'.
Locative Byname:

Hafrsfjo˛rr, Norway.

From OIc. hafr 'a he-goat, a buck', genitive singular hafrs, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': literally 'goat’s fjord'. However, hafr may in this case refer to a skerry in the narrow entrance to the fjord, or to a dangerous shoal by one of these skerries: dangerous skerries in shipping channels were not infrequently named for domestic animals. (NSL s.n. Hafrsfjord)
Locative Byname:

Hafsbotn

OIc. hafsbotn 'a gulf', a compound of haf 'the sea, especially the high sea, the ocean', genitive singular hafs, and botn 'the head of a bay, firth, lake, or valley'. Here it refers to the Arctic Ocean, which was thought to be fringed by a land-bridge between Greenland and Russia.
Locative Byname:

Hfslkr, Mr. (brook)

The second element is OIc. lkr (later lkr) 'a rivulet, a brook'; the first seems likely to be from hfr 'a bag-shaped net for catching fish', genitive singular hfs, but the exact significance isn’t clear. Connection with hfr 'a dogfish' seems unlikely: the dogfish is an ocean fish.
Locative Byname:

Hagagarr, rn.

From OIc. hagi 'a pasture, a field for grazing', genitive singular haga, and garr 'an enclosure, a yard; a courtyard, a court; a house; a stronghold'; it’s uncertain whether this is an actual place-name or merely a common noun denoting a yard or house by a pasture.
Locative Byname:

Haganes, Skag. (ness and farm)

From OIc. hagi 'a pasture, a field for grazing', genitive singular haga, and nes 'a ness, a headland', a ness with a pasture.
Locative Byname:

Hagbarshlmr, Norway. (islet)

From the masculine name Hagbarr, genitive Hagbars, and OIc. hlmr 'a holm, an islet': 'Hagbar’s holm'. The islet, now called Hagbardholmen, is on the island of Engelya (OIc. O˛ngull) in the county of Nordland and is associated with the legend of Hagbard and Signy.
Locative Byname:

Hagi, rn. (farm)
–– Bar. (farm)
–– Eyfj. (farm)
–– inn forni (Fornhagi), Eyfj.

OIc. hagi 'a pasture, a field for grazing'. Hagi inn forni is 'the old pasture', and Fornhagi is 'old-pasture'.
Locative Byname: Haga, Haganum forna, r Haga

Hakaskar, rn. (notch)

From the masculine name Haki, genitive Haka, and OIc. skar 'a mountain pass, a notch': 'Haki’s notch'. A thrall named Haki is supposed to have been slain here.
Locative Byname:

Hkonarhella, Norway.

From the masculine name Hkon, genitive Hkonar, and OIc. hella 'a flat stone, a slab of rock', often applied to a landing-place: 'Hkon’s flat rock'. Hkon Aalsteins fstri (Haakon I of Norway, fosterling to King Athelstan of England) is supposed to have died here. (NSL s.n. Hkonshella)
Locative Byname:

Hkonarstair, N.-Ml. (farm)

From the masculine name Hkon, genitive Hkonar, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Hkon’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Hkonarsto˛um, at Hkonarsto˛um

Hallarmli, Mr. (fell)

From OIc. ho˛ll 'a large house, a hall', genitive singular hallar, and mli 'a projecting mountain, a jutting crag (between two fjords, valleys, or the like)'.
Locative Byname:

Halland, Sweden.

The second element is OIc. land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', here referring to a region: Halland is a historical province in southwestern Sweden. The first element is perhaps from OIc. hallr 'a flat stone'.
Locative Byname:

Hallbjarnarvo˛rur, rn. (cairns)

From the masculine name Hallbjo˛rn, genitive Hallbjarnar, and OIc. vara 'a pile of stones, a cairn', here in the plural vo˛rur; according to Landnmabk, there were three and five cairns respectively on two neighboring heights where Hallbjo˛rn Odds son fr Kijabergi and seven other men were killed after Hallbjo˛rn killed his wife.
Locative Byname:

Hallgeirsey, Rang. (farm)

From the masculine name Hallgeirr, genitive Hallgeirs, and OIc. ey 'an island': 'Hallgeir’s island'.
Locative Byname: Hallgeirsey(ju)

Hallkelshlar, rn.

From the masculine name Hallkell, genitive Hallkels, and OIc. hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll', here in the plural hlar: 'Hallkel’s knolls'.
Locative Byname: undir Hallkelshlum, at Hallkelshlum

Hallkelsstair, Borg. (farm)
–– Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name Hallkell, genitive Hallkels, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead': 'Hallkel’s stead(s)'. The first of these also appears erroneously as Hrokkelsstair.
Locative Byname: Hallkelssto˛um

Hallsteinsnes, Bar. (ness)

From the masculine name Hallsteinn, genitive Hallsteins, and OIc. nes 'a ness, a headland': 'Hallstein’s point'.
Locative Byname: Hallsteinsnesi

Hlogaland, Norway.

From the (plural) ethnonym hleygir, genitive hloga, and OIc. land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', here referring to the part of Norway north of Trndelag: 'land of the Hleygir'. The southern part of the county of Nordland is still called Helgeland. The etymology of the ethnonym is uncertain. (NSL s.nn. Hlogaland, Helgeland)
Locative Byname:

Hls, Eyfj. (farm)
–– inn ytri, safj. (farm)
–– Hnv.

OIc. hls 'a ridge or hill, especially the low fells between two parallel valleys' (literally 'a neck'); hls inn ytri is 'the outer ridge'.
Locative Byname:

Hlsaland, Borg. (region)

Apparently from OIc. hls 'a ridge or hill, especially the low fells between two parallel valleys' (literally 'a neck'), and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', making this 'land of ridges'.
Locative Byname:

Hlsar, safj. (two ridges and a farm)

OIc. hls 'a ridge or hill, especially the low fells between two parallel valleys' (literally 'a neck'), here in the plural hlsar.
Locative Byname: at Hlsum

Hlsgro˛f, Skag.

From OIc. hls 'a ridge or hill, especially the low fells between two parallel valleys' (literally 'a neck'), genitive singular hls, and gro˛f 'a pit, a ditch; a grave', for a pit on a ridge.
Locative Byname:

Hamarr, Mr. (farm)
–– (cliff in the Vestmannaeyjar)
–– see So˛lvahamarr.

OIc. hamarr, literally 'a hammer', but as a topographical term 'a hammer-shaped crag, a steep rock, a precipice'.
Locative Byname: Hamri

Hamars, S.-Ml. (river)

From OIc. hamarr, literally 'a hammer', but as a topographical term 'a hammer-shaped crag, a steep rock, a precipice', and 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Hamrar, (1) Skaft. (rocky area and farm)
–– (2) Skaft.

From OIc. hamarr, literally 'a hammer', but as a topographical term 'a hammer-shaped crag, a steep rock, a precipice', here in the plural hamrar.
Locative Byname:

Hmundarstair, Eyfj. (farm)

From the masculine name Hmundr, genitive Hmundar, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Hmund’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Hmundarsto˛um

Hanatn, Eyfj. (farm)

From OIc. hani 'a cock, a rooster', genitive singular hana, and tn 'a hedged plot, an enclosure, a courtyard, a homestead; a home field, a home meadow'. The exact sense of tn in this place-name isn’t clear; perhaps 'enclosed homestead'? Hana- comes from the byname of Eyvindr hani, the original settler: 'Cock’s tn'. Apparently his place of residence was distinctive, as he was subsequently called tnhani 'tn-cock'.
Locative Byname: Hanatni

Hreksstair, Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name Hrekr, genitive Hreks, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Hrek’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Hrekssto˛um

Hsteinssund, rn. (sound)

From the masculine name Hsteinn, genitive Hsteins, and OIc. sund 'a sound, a strait, a channel': 'Hstein’s sound'.
Locative Byname:

Haugar, Mr. (farm)

OIc. haugr 'a burial mound, a cairn', here in the plural haugar.
Locative Byname: at Haugum

Haugava, rn. (ford)

From OIc. haugr 'a burial mound, a cairn', genitive plural hauga, and va 'a ford, a wading-place across a stream', for a ford by some burial mounds.
Locative Byname:

Haugr, (?).

OIc. haugr 'a burial mound, a cairn'.
Locative Byname: at Haugi, af Haugi

Haukadalr, rn. (farm)
–– Dal. (valley)
–– safj. (valley)

From OIc. haukr 'a hawk', genitive plural hauka, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'hawks’ valley'.
Locative Byname: Haukadal, older Haukadali

Haukagil, Hnv.

From OIc. haukr 'a hawk', genitive plural hauka, and gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom': 'hawks’ ravine'.
Locative Byname: fr Haukagili

Hauksgrafir (Hauksstair), (?). (farm)

From the masculine name Haukr, genitive Hauks, and OIc. gro˛f 'a pit, a ditch; a grave', here in the plural grafir, or star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Hauk’s pits' or 'Hauk’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname:

Hvararln, ing.

From the masculine name Hvarr, genitive Hvarar, and OIc. ln 'an inlet, a lagoon': 'Hvar’s inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Hinsho˛fi, ing. (farm)

From the masculine name Hinn, genitive Hins, and OIc. ho˛fi 'a headland': 'Hin’s headland'.
Locative Byname: at Hinsho˛fa, fr Hinsho˛fa

Hefn, Norway. (fjord)

A variant (or possibly a derivative) of OIc. ho˛fn 'a harbor, a haven'. Hefn seems to have been the original name of what is now Hemnefjorden.
Locative Byname: Hefni

Hegranes, Skag. (delta)

From OIc. hegri 'a heron', genitive singular and genitive plural hegra, and nes 'a ness, a headland'; formally this could be either 'heron’s point' or 'herons’ point'. However, Hvarr hegri is said to have wintered there when he first came out to Iceland, so it could get its name from his byname.
Locative Byname: Hegranesi

Heggsgerismli, Skaft.: see Hreggsgerismli.

Heiabr, rn. (farm)

From OIc. heir 'a heath, a moor', genitive plural heia, and br 'a farmhouse, a farmstead'.
Locative Byname: Heiab, Heiab

Heir, Kjs. (heath)

OIc. heir 'a heath, a moor'. Now Mosfellsheii.
Locative Byname:

Heinabergs(r), Skaft. (river)

The final element is OIc. 'a river' or its plural r. Heinabergs is the genitive of Heinaberg, so the place-name is 'Heinaberg’s river(s)'. The farm-name Heinaberg is itself a compound, apparently referring to a particular kind of rock: berg is 'elevated rocky ground; a rock, a boulder; a cliff, a precipice', and heina appears to be the genitive plural of hein 'a hone, a whetstone'.
Locative Byname:

Helgafell (Helgafjall), Snf. (fell)

Traditionally as 'sacred fell', from OIc. heilagr 'sacred, holy; inviolate' and fell 'an isolated hill' (or fjall 'a fell, a mountain'). (Both fell and fjall are neuter nouns, and helga is the neuter singular of the weak declension of heilagr, which is appropriate here.) This interpretation is supported by the tale of its naming given in Landnmabk. However, there is evidence that in pre-Christian usage heilagr was strictly a legal term, 'inviolate, untouchable' and hence that the tale is anachronistic. It is entirely possible that the name is simply 'Helgi’s fell', from the masculine name Helgi, genitive Helga. (It is in any case a rather striking formation, as can be seen here).
Locative Byname:

Helgahraun, rn.

From the masculine name Helgi, genitive Helga, and OIc. hraun 'a burnt-out lava field', originally 'a rough place, a wilderness': 'Helgi’s lava field'. In some versions of Landnmabk Helgi trausti is said to have been killed here; others give the name as Helgahvll.
Locative Byname:

Helgahvll, rn.

From the masculine name Helgi, genitive Helga, and OIc. hvll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll': 'Helgi’s knoll'. In some versions of Landnmabk Helgi trausti is said to have been killed here; others give the name as Helgahraun.
Locative Byname:

Helgasker, Strand. (skerry)

From the masculine name Helgi, genitive Helga, and OIc. sker 'a rock in the sea, a skerry': 'Helgi’s skerry'.
Locative Byname:

Helgastair, ing. (farm)

From the masculine name Helgi, genitive Helga, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Helgi’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Helgasto˛um, at Helgasto˛um

Helgavatn, Hnv. (lake and farm)
–– Mr. (lake and farm)

From the masculine name Helgi, genitive Helga, and OIc. vatn 'water, fresh water; a lake': 'Helgi’s lake'. The one in Mrassla also appears as Hreuvatn; here hreu appears to be the genitive singular of the attested byname hrea 'a disturbance', perhaps for a quarrelsome person.
Locative Byname: at Helgavatni

Hellisdalr, Mr. (side valley)

From OIc. hellir 'a cave, a cavern', genitive singular hellis, and dalr 'a valley, a dale'.
Locative Byname:

Hellisfitjar, Mr.

From OIc. hellir 'a cave, a cavern', genitive singular hellis, and fit 'meadow land on the banks of a fjord, lake, or river', here in the plural fitjar.
Locative Byname:

Hellisfjo˛rr, S.-Ml. (fjord)

From OIc. hellir 'a cave, a cavern', genitive singular hellis, and fjo˛rdr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Hellishraun, Snf. (lava field)

From OIc. hellir 'a cave, a cavern', genitive singular hellis, and hraun 'a burnt-out lava field', originally 'a rough place, a wilderness'.
Locative Byname:

Hengifors, N.-Ml. (river)

'Hanging-waterfall river', from OIc. hengi- 'hanging', fors 'a waterfall', genitive identical, and 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Herfura, Saxland.

This is Herford in North Rhine - Westphalia, Germany.
Locative Byname:

Hergilsey, Bar. (island)

From the masculine name Hergils, genitive identical, and OIc. ey 'an island': 'Hergils’s island'.
Locative Byname: Hergilsey

Herjlfsdalr, in the Vestmannaeyjar. (farm)

From the masculine name Herjlfr, genitive Herjlfs, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Herjlf’s valley'.
Locative Byname: Herjlfsdal

Herjlfsfjo˛rr, Greenland. (fjord)

From the masculine name Herjlfr, genitive Herjlfs, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Herjlf’s fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Herjlfsho˛fn, Gullbr.(?) (cove)

From the masculine name Herjlfr, genitive Herjlfs, and OIc. ho˛fn 'a harbor, a haven': 'Herjlf’s harbor'.
Locative Byname:

Herjlfsnes, Greenland. (ness and farm)

From the masculine name Herjlfr, genitive Herjlfs, and OIc. nes 'a ness, a headland': 'Herjlf’s point'.
Locative Byname: Herjlfsnesi

Hernar, Norway. (island)

The name is from the same root as OIc. hjarsi 'the crown of the head' and hjarni 'the brain'; a plural noun, it probably refers to the head-like elevations at the southwestern tip of the island. (NSL s.n. Hernar)
Locative Byname:

Hestfjo˛rr, safj. (fjord)

From OIc. hestr 'a horse, a stallion', of which the root is hest-, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Hestr, S.-Ml.

OIc. hestr 'a horse, a stallion'.
Locative Byname:

Heynes, Borg. (farm)

From OIc. hey 'hay' and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'hay point'.
Locative Byname: Heynesi

Hildisey, Rang. (farm)

From the masculine name Hildir, genitive Hildis, and OIc. ey 'an island': 'Hildir’s island'.
Locative Byname: Hildisey

Hsargafl, Norway.

From *Hs, an earlier name of the island Hisary, genitive *Hsar, and OIc. gafl 'a gable, a gable-end'; the sense is 'the end of Hs island'. There are etymological grounds for thinking that *Hs probably meant something like 'split, cloven', and in fact the island is almost cut in two. (NSL s.nn. Hisary, Hisy)
Locative Byname:

Ht, Htar, Mr. (river)

The last element is OIc. 'a river'; the first is uncertain. The variation between Ht and Htar indicates that ht was treated as a feminine noun with genitive htar; there is such a noun, ht 'a skin bag', but this is quite unsatisfactory semantically. In Brar saga snfellsss, which dates from the late fourteenth century, it is explained as the name of a tro˛llkona 'female troll'; this suggests that the name had by then no obvious etymology. In all likelihood the name was originally Hit 'hot river', with a first element related to hiti 'heat'; not far to the north is the Kald 'cold river'.
Locative Byname:

Htardalr, Mr. (valley)

The second element is OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale'; for the first see Ht. If the suggestion made there is correct, this would properly be Hitrdalr, Hitr being the genitive of Hit 'hot river': 'hot-river valley'.
Locative Byname: r Htardal, Htardal

Hjallaland, Hnv.

From OIc. hjalli 'a ledge in a mountainside', genitive singular hjalla, and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country'.
Locative Byname: Hjallalandi

Hjallanes, safj. (ness)

From OIc. hjalli 'a ledge in a mountainside', genitive singular hjalla, and nes 'a ness, a headland'.
Locative Byname:

Hjalli, rn. (farm)
–– Hnv.

OIc. hjalli 'a ledge in a mountainside'.
Locative Byname: Hjalla

Hjaltadalr, Skag. (valley)

From the masculine name Hjalti, genitive Hjalta, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Hjalti’s valley'.
Locative Byname:

Hjaltaeyrr, Eyfj. (spit)

From the masculine name Hjalti, genitive Hjalta, and OIc. eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea': 'Hjalti’s sandbank'. This seems to be the location of the modern Hjalteyri.
Locative Byname:

Hjaltdlalaut, Bar. (small valley)

The last element is OIc. laut 'a hollow place'. Hjaltdla appears to be the genitive of a plural noun *Hjaltdlir 'people of Hjaltdalr', historically *Hjaltdlir; here dlir is the plural of dll 'a dalesman'. This would make *Hjaltdalr the name of a valley, though I have not found such a place-name. It would seem to be a compound of OIc. hjalt 'the pommel of a sword; also its guard or crosspiece' and dalr 'a valley; a dale', the first element presumably describing its shape or situation relative to other geographical features.
Locative Byname:

Hjaltland.

Shetland, also called the Shetland Islands; Shetland is how the name developed in English. From OIc. hjalt 'the pommel of a sword; also its guard or crosspiece' and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country'.
Locative Byname:

Hjararholt, Dal. (farm)

From OIc. hjo˛r 'a herd, a flock', genitive hjarar, and holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge'.
Locative Byname: Hjararholti

Hjararnes (Herdsarnes), Bar. (ness)

From OIc. hjo˛r 'a herd, a flock', genitive hjarar, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'herd’s point'. One source gives the name as Herdsarnes, whose first element, Herdsar, is the genitive of the feminine name Herds, but this appears to be an error.
Locative Byname:

Hjararvatn, Snf. (lake)

From OIc. hjo˛r 'a herd, a flock', genitive hjarar, and vatn 'water, fresh water; a lake': 'herd’s lake'.
Locative Byname:

Hjo˛rleifsho˛fi, Skaft. (headland)

From the masculine name Hjo˛rleifr, genitive Hjo˛rleifs, and OIc. ho˛fi 'a headland': 'Hjo˛rleif’s headland'.
Locative Byname:

Hlahamarr, Borg.

OIc. hlahamarr, synonymous with hlaberg 'a projecting pier, a rock where a ship is laden'; the first element seems to be from hlaa 'to load, especially a ship' (and other meanings). (Berg and hamarr are respectively 'elevated rocky ground; a rock, a boulder; a cliff, a precipice' and 'a hammer-shaped crag, a steep rock, a precipice' (literally 'a hammer'.)
Locative Byname:

Hleirargarr, Eyfj.

The second element is OIc. garr 'an enclosure, a yard; a courtyard, a court; a house; a stronghold'. The first appears to be related to the name of the Danish town of Lejre, whose OIc. form was Hleira. Specifically, it appears to be the genitive singular of a feminine noun *hleir related to Gothic hleira 'a tent, a hut'
Locative Byname:

Hl, Bar.
–– in ytri, rn.
–– (Jkulsrhl), N.-Ml.

OIc. hl 'a mountainside, a slope'; in ytri is 'the outer', so that Hl in ytri is 'the outer slope'. The one in N.-Ml. is now Jkulsrhl; Jkulsr is the genitive of the river-name Jkuls
Locative Byname: Hl (inni ytri); r Hl

Hlir, Norway.

The plural of OIc. hl 'a mountainside, a slope'. (The modern plural is hlar.) In Old Norwegian this was Lir, which has become Lier in the modern language. (NSL s.n. Lier)
Locative Byname: r Hlum

Hlarendi, Rang. (farm)

From OIc. hl 'a mountainside, a slope', genitive singular hlar, and endi 'the end of an object': 'slope’s end'.
Locative Byname: at Hlarenda, Hlarenda, fr Hlarenda

Hlarlo˛nd, rn.

From OIc. hl 'a mountainside, a slope', genitive singular hlar, and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', here in the plural lo˛nd: 'slope’s lands'.
Locative Byname:

Hlymrek, Ireland.

An OIc. adaptation of Luimnech, the Old Irish name of Limerick.
Locative Byname: Hlymreki

Hlo˛uvk, safj. (inlet)

Apparently from OIc. hlaa 'a storehouse, a barn', genitive (singular and plural) hlo˛u, and vk 'an inlet, a small bay'.
Locative Byname:

Hnjsk, Hnjskadals: see Fnjskadals.

Hnjskadalr: see Fnjskadalr.

Hof, (1) Hnv. (farm)
–– (2) Hnv. (farm)
–– Kjs. (farm)
–– N.-Ml. (farm)
–– Rang. (farm)
–– S.-Ml. (farm)
–– Skaft. (farm)
–– (1) Skag. (farm)
–– (2) Skag. (farm)
–– ?

OIc. hof 'a (pre-Christian) temple'.
Locative Byname: at Hofi, Hofi, fr Hofi

Hofgarar, Snf.

OIc. hofgarr 'a temple-yard', here in the plural hofgarar; the word is a compound of hof 'a (pre-Christian) temple' and garr 'an enclosure, a yard; a courtyard, a court; a house; a stronghold'.
Locative Byname: Hofgo˛rum

Hofs, Snf.

From OIc. hof 'a (pre-Christian) temple', genitive singular hofs, and 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Hofsfell, Skaft. (farm)

From OIc. hof 'a (pre-Christian) temple', genitive singular hofs, and fell 'an isolated hill'.
Locative Byname: Hofsfelli

Hofsland, Hnv.

From OIc. hof 'a (pre-Christian) temple', genitive singular hofs, and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country'. Apparently the land associated with Hof (2) in Hnv.
Locative Byname:

Hofslo˛nd, N.-Ml.

From OIc. hof 'a (pre-Christian) temple', genitive singular hofs, and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', here in the plural lo˛nd. Apparently the lands associated with Hof in N.-Ml.
Locative Byname:

Hofstair, Bar. (farm)
–– Borg.
–– Skag. (farm)
–– Snf. (farm)

From OIc. hof 'a (pre-Christian) temple', genitive singular hofs, and star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair.
Locative Byname: Hofsto˛um, af Hofsto˛um

Hofsteigr, N.-Ml. (farm)

The first element is OIc. hof 'a (pre-Christian) temple', genitive singular hofs; the second is probably close kin to stigr and its variant stgr, both 'a path, a way'.
Locative Byname:

Hofsvgr, Snf. (inlet)

From OIc. hof 'a (pre-Christian) temple', genitive singular hofs, and vgr 'a creek, a bay'.
Locative Byname: Hofsvgi

Hlar (Hrepphlar), (1) rn. (farm)
–– (Klaustrhlar), (2) rn. (farm)
–– (Reykjahlar), Bar. (farm)
–– (Vestrhpshlar), Hnv. (farm)
–– (Krumshlar), Mr. (farm)
–– Skag. (farm)

OIc. hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll', here in the plural hlar. The long forms in parentheses are OIc. forms of the modern names of these places; Reykjahlar occurs in at least one version of Landnmabk, and they are probably all quite old, but I have no other details. The first elements of the first four are from OIc. hreppr 'a poor-law district (in Iceland)', klaustr 'a cloister, a convent', reykr 'smoke, steam' (referring to hot springs), genitive plural reykja, and a compound of vestr 'the west' and hp 'a small, land-locked bay or inlet connected with the sea'. Krums is the genitive singular of krumr, the byname of orbjo˛rn krumr, who was given land there; the byname probably refers to a stiff or crooked finger.
Locative Byname: at Hlum, Hlum, Hlum. (There is also someone described as living fyrir ofan Hla 'above Hlar', but I’m not sure whether this expression would have been used as a byname.)

Hll, Norway(?)
–– Dal. (farm)

OIc. hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll'.
Locative Byname: fr Hli, undir Hli

Hlmgarr.

Northwestern Russia, e.g., around Lake Ladoga; the name is a compound of OIc. hlmr 'a holm, an islet' and garr 'an enclosure, a yard; a courtyard, a court; a house; a stronghold'.
Locative Byname:

Hlmkels, Snf. (river)

From the masculine name Hlmkell, genitive Hlmkels, and OIc. 'a river': 'Hlmkel’s river'.
Locative Byname:

Hlmr, Gullbr. (farm)
–– inn innri (ytri), Borg. (farm)
–– Mr. (farm)

OIc. hlmr 'a holm, an islet'; inn innri and inn ytri are 'the inner' and 'the outer', respectively.
Locative Byname: at Hlmi, Hlmi; at Hlmi inum ira (ytra)

Hlms, Skaft. (river)

From OIc. hlmr 'a holm, an islet', genitive singular hlms, and 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Hlmsltr, Snf. (farm)

From OIc. hlmr 'a holm, an islet', genitive singular hlms, and ltr 'the place where animals, esp. seals and whales, lay their young'.
Locative Byname: Hlmsltri

Hlm(s)lo˛nd, Mr.

From OIc. hlmr 'a holm, an islet', genitive singular hlms, and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', here in the plural lo˛nd. These are the lands associated with Hlmr in Mr.
Locative Byname:

Hlmslo˛nd, Rang. (region)

From OIc. hlmr 'a holm, an islet', genitive singular hlms, and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', here in the plural lo˛nd.
Locative Byname:

Holt, rn. (region)
–– (= Brautarholt?), Kjs.?
–– undir Eyjafjo˛llum, Rang. (farm)
–– Hnv.
–– Skaft. (farm)
–– Skag. (farm)

OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge'; in most cases the first sense is probably intended. The rn. place-name is in the plural, which in the nominative case is identical to the singular, and the region is also referred to as Holtalo˛nd 'Holt’s lands'; undir Eyjafjo˛llum is 'under Eyjafjo˛ll'.
Locative Byname: Holti (when Holt is singular)

Holtastair, Hnv. (farm)

From OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge', genitive plural holta, and star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair.
Locative Byname: Holtasto˛um

Horn it eystra, Skaft. (promontory)

OIc. horn 'a corner, a nook, an angle', modified by the addition of it eystra 'the eastern': 'the eastern corner'.
Locative Byname:

Horn it vestra, safj.

OIc. horn 'a corner, a nook, an angle', modified by the addition of it vestra 'the western': 'the western corner'.
Locative Byname:

Hornafjararstro˛nd, Skaft. (stretch of coast)

From the place-name Hornafjo˛rr, genitive Hornafjarar and OIc. stro˛nd 'a strand, coast, shore': 'Hornafjo˛r’s strand'.
Locative Byname:

Hornafjo˛rr, Skaft. (fjord)

From OIc. horn 'a corner, a nook, an angle', genitive plural horna, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Hornstrandir, safj. (stretch of coast)

From OIc. horn 'a corner, a nook, an angle' and stro˛nd 'a strand, coast, shore', here in the plural strandir.
Locative Byname:

Hrafnagil, Eyfj.

From OIc. hrafn 'a raven', genitive plural hrafna, and gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom': 'ravens’ gully'.
Locative Byname: at Hrafnagili

Hrafnagj, rn. (cleft)

From OIc. hrafn 'a raven', genitive plural hrafna, and gj 'a rift, a cleft, a chasm': 'ravens’ rift'.
Locative Byname:

Hrafnista, Norway. (island)

An island name, probably from OIc. hrafn 'a raven' and a suffix -ista of unknown origin. (NSL s.n. Ramstad)
Locative Byname: r Hrafnistu

Hrafnkelsdalr, N.-Ml. (side valley)

From the masculine name Hrafnkell, genitive Hrafnkels, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Hrafnkel’s valley'.
Locative Byname:

Hrafnsfjo˛rr, Greenland. (fjord)
–– safj. (fjord)

From the masculine name Hrafn, genitive Hrafns, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Hrafn’s fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Hrafnstptir, Rang. (temporary farm)

From the masculine name Hrafn, genitive Hrafns, and OIc. topt 'a toft, a homestead; a place marked out for a house or building; a square plot of ground with walls but no roof', here in the plural toptir: 'Hrafn’s tofts'.
Locative Byname:

Hranafall, Mr.?

From the masculine name Hrani, genitive Hrana, and OIc. fall 'a fall; a death in battle' (and various other senses); Hrani Grms son is said to have killed orgestr Arnbjargar son in battle here.
Locative Byname:

Hranastair, Borg. (farm)
–– Skaft. (farm)

From the masculine name Hrani, genitive Hrana, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Hrani’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Hranasto˛um

Hraun, Borg. (lava field)
–– (1) (= Berserkjahraun) Snf. (lava field)
–– (2) Snf.
–– (3) Snf. (farm)

OIc. hraun 'a burnt-out lava field', originally 'a rough place, a wilderness'. Berserkja is the genitive plural of berserkr 'a berserker', so Berserkjahraun is 'berserkers’ hraun'; Eyrbyggja saga, Chapter 28, tells how two berserkers were tricked into clearing a path across the hraun.
Locative Byname: Hrauni, at Hrauni

Hraunaheir: see Kraunaheir.

Hraunadalr (syri, ytri), Mr. (two valleys)

From OIc. hraun 'a burnt-out lava field', originally 'a rough place, a wilderness', genitive plural hrauna, and dalr 'a valley, a dale'; there were two, one syri 'southern', the other ytri 'outer'.
Locative Byname: inum syrum Hraundal

Hraungeri, rn. (farm)

From OIc. hraun 'a burnt-out lava field', originally 'a rough place, a wilderness', and geri 'a fenced field'.
Locative Byname: Hraungeri

Hraungeringahreppr, rn. (region)

From OIc. Hraungeringr 'an inhabitant of Hraungeri', genitive plural Hraungeringa, and hreppr 'a poor-law district (in Iceland)': 'poor-law district of the inhabitants of Hraungeri'. Note that this sense of hreppr postdates the introduction of Christianity; either the name is an anachronism in Landnmabk, or the word originally had a somewhat different sense.
Locative Byname:

Hraunhafnar, Snf. (river)

From the place-name Hraunho˛fn, genitive Hraunhafnar, and OIc. 'a river': 'Hraunho˛fn’s river'.
Locative Byname:

Hraunho˛fn, Snf. (cove)
–– ing. (harbor)

From OIc. hraun 'a burnt-out lava field', originally 'a rough place, a wilderness', and ho˛fn 'a harbor, a haven'.
Locative Byname:

Hraunsss, Borg. (farm)

From OIc. hraun 'a burnt-out lava field', originally 'a rough place, a wilderness', genitive singular hrauns, and ss 'a rocky ridge'.
Locative Byname: Hraunssi

Hraunsfjo˛rr, Snf. (fjord and farm)

From OIc. hraun 'a burnt-out lava field', originally 'a rough place, a wilderness', genitive singular hrauns, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'. This is the name both of a fjord and of a farm; the locative byname refers to the farm.
Locative Byname: Hraunsfiri

Hraunsholtslkr, Gullbr. (brook)

From OIc. hraun 'a burnt-out lava field', originally 'a rough place, a wilderness', genitive singular hrauns, holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge', genitive holts, and lkr (later lkr) 'a rivulet, a brook'.
Locative Byname:

Hraunslkr, rn. (brook)

From OIc. hraun 'a burnt-out lava field', originally 'a rough place, a wilderness', genitive singular hrauns, and lkr (later lkr) 'a rivulet, a brook'.
Locative Byname:

Hreuvatn, Mr. 91: see Helgavatn.

Hreggsgerismli, Heggsgerismli, Skaft. (fell)

Both forms are found, depending on the manuscript. This is apparently a compound of H(r)eggsgeris, the genitive singular of H(r)eggsgeri, and OIc. mli 'a projecting mountain, a jutting crag (between two fjords, valleys, or the like)'. H(r)eggsgeri is itself a topographical compound, the second element being OIc. geri 'a fenced field'. If Hreggsgerismli is correct, the first element would seem to be the genitive singular of OIc. hregg 'a storm'. If Heggsgerismli is correct, the first element is the genitive of the masculine name Heggr, or perhaps the genitive singular of OIc. heggr 'bird cherry (tree)'.
Locative Byname:

Hreiarsgeri, Snf.

From the masculine name Hreiarr, genitive Hreiars, and OIc. geri 'a fenced field'.
Locative Byname:

Hringarki, Norway.

From an ethnonym Hringar, genitive Hringa, both plural, and OIc. rki 'a kingdom, a realm': 'the realm of the Hringar'. (NSL s.n. Ringerike)
Locative Byname: af Hringarki

Hringdalir, (?)

Apparently from OIc. hringr 'a ring, a circle' and dalr 'a valley, a dale', here in the plural dalir: 'ring valleys'.
Locative Byname:

Hringsstair, Hnv. (farm)

From OIc. hringr 'a ring, a circle', genitive singular hrings, and star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair; according to Landnmabk, the original settler was Haraldr hringr. The byname may mean that he came from Hringarki.
Locative Byname:

Hrip, Snf. (farm)

Apparently OIc. hrip 'a box of laths; a basket', but if so, the sense as a place-name isn’t entirely clear, to say the least.
Locative Byname: Hripi

Hrsar, Borg. (farm)

This is a feminine collective plural corresponding to the neuter OIc. noun hrs 'shrubs, brushwood'
Locative Byname: Hrsum; Hrseyjar-

Hrsateigr, Eyfj. (meadow)

From OIc. hrs 'shrubs, brushwood', genitive hrsa, and teigr 'a strip of field or meadowland': 'brush-covered strip of field or meadowland'.
Locative Byname:

Hrsey, Eyfj. (island)

From OIc. hrs 'shrubs, brushwood' and ey 'an island': 'brushwood island'.
Locative Byname: Hrsey, r Hrsey

Hrarsholt, rn.

From the masculine name Hrarr, genitive Hrars, and OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge': probably 'Hrar’s copse'.
Locative Byname:

Hrarslkr (Hrarsholtslkr), rn. (brook)

From the masculine name Hrarr, genitive Hrars, and OIc. lkr (later lkr) 'a rivulet, a brook': 'Hrar’s brook'. In the variant Hrarsholtslkr the compound first element, Hrarsholts, is the genitive of the place-name Hrarsholt.
Locative Byname:

Hrarslkr, Rang.

From the masculine name Hrarr, genitive Hrars, and OIc. lkr (later lkr) 'a rivulet, a brook': 'Hrar’s brook'.
Locative Byname:

Hrokkelsstair: see Hallkelsstair, Borg.

Hrksholt, Snf.

From the masculine name Hrkr, genitive Hrks, and OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge': probably 'Hrk’s copse'.
Locative Byname: Hrksholti

Hrolleifsdalr, Skag. (valley)

From the masculine name Hrolleifr, genitive Hrolleifs, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Hrolleif’s valley'.
Locative Byname: Hrolleifsdal

Hrolleifsdals, Skag. (river)

From the place-name Hrolleifsdalr, genitive Hrolleifsdals, and OIc. 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Hrunamannahreppr, rn. (region)

OIc. hreppr is 'a poor-law district'. Hrunamanna is the genitive plural of Hrunamar, a compound whose second element is mar 'a human being'. I have not been able to identify the first element; it could be the genitive of Hruni, a place-name in the region, though this place-name does not itself occur in Landnmabk. If so, the sense would be 'poor-law district of the people of Hruni'. The place-name Hruni may be related to hruninn 'collapsed, fallen in', the past participle of hrynja.

Note that this sense of hreppr postdates the introduction of Christianity; either the name is an anachronism in Landnmabk, or the word originally had a somewhat different sense.
Locative Byname:

Hrtafjarardalr. (region)

Hrtafjarar is the genitive of the place-name Hrtafjo˛rr. The last element is OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'valley of the fjord Hrtafjo˛rr'.
Locative Byname:

Hrtafjararstro˛nd in eystri, Hnv.

Hrtafjarar is the genitive of the place-name Hrtafjo˛rr. The last element is OIc. stro˛nd 'strand, coast, shore', and the affix is 'the eastern': 'the eastern shore of Hrtafjo˛rr'.
Locative Byname:

Hrtafjo˛rr. (fjord)

The second element is OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'. On the face of it the first element is from hrtr 'a ram', genitive plural hrta, making the name 'rams’ fjord': according to Landnmabk it was so called because an early group of settlers found two rams there when they first sailed into the fjord.
Locative Byname: Hrtafiri, r Hrtafiri

Hrtsstair, Dal. (farm)

From the masculine name Hrtr, genitive Hrts, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Hrt’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Hrtssto˛um

Hrreksgil, Skag.

From the masculine name Hrrekr, genitive Hrreks, and OIc. gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom': 'Hrrek’s gully'. It is said to have been named after a thrall named Hrrekr; his name also appears as Rorekr, genitive Roreks. (Both are from an older *Hrrkr.)
Locative Byname:

Hnavatn, Hnv. (lake)

Apparently from OIc. hnn 'a bear-cub', genitive plural hna, and vatn 'water, fresh water, a lake': 'bear-cubs’ lake'. According to Landnmabk, the settler Ingimundr inn gamli orsteins son found a female polar bear and two cubs here and took them to Norway, where people had never before seen white bears.
Locative Byname:

Hnavatnsing.

From the place-name Hnavatn and OIc. ing 'an assembly, a meeting; a parliament'. This was one of the vring, or spring assemblies.
Locative Byname:

Hundadalr, Dal. (valley)

From the masculine name Hundi, genitive Hunda, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Hundi’s valley'. In principle the first element could be the genitive plural of hundr 'a hound, a dog', making it 'hounds' valley', but Landnmabk says that it was given by Aur in djpga Ketils dttir to her freedman Hundi. He is said to have been Scottish, and the name is probably a translation of EIr cuiln 'a whelp', used as a masculine name, or perhaps of matad 'a dog, a mastiff; a cur', also used as a masculine name.
Locative Byname:

Hundsnes, ing.

Apparently from OIc. hundr 'a hound, a dog', genitive singular hunds, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'hound’s point'.
Locative Byname:

Hsagarr, Rang. (farm)

From OIc. hs 'a house', in the plural not just 'houses' but also the group of buildings on a farm', genitive plural hsa, and garr 'an enclosure, a yard; a courtyard, a court; a house; a stronghold', perhaps for a farm with an enclosing wall.
Locative Byname: Hsagari

Hsavk, N.-Ml.
–– ing. (cove and farm)

From OIc. hs 'a house', in the plural not just 'houses' but also the group of buildings on a farm', genitive plural hsa, and vk 'an inlet, a small bay'.
Locative Byname:

Hsnar: see Hernar.

Hvaleyrr, Gullbr. (ness)

From OIc. hvalr 'a whale' and eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea'; Flki Vilgerar son, the man who is supposed to have given Iceland (sland) its name, is said to have found a whale stranded here.
Locative Byname:

Hvalfjararstro˛nd, Borg.

From the place-name Hvalfjo˛rr, genitive Hvalfjarar, and OIc. stro˛nd 'strand, coast, shore'.
Locative Byname:

Hvalfjo˛rr. (fjord)

From OIc. hvalr 'a whale' and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'whale-fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Hvll (Strlfshvll), Rang. (farm)

OIc. hvll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll'. The longer name is 'Strlf’s knoll', from the masculine name Strlfr, genitive Strlfs.
Locative Byname: at Hvli

Hvalltr, Bar. (farm)

From OIc. hvalr 'a whale' and ltr 'the place where animals, esp. seals and whales, lay their young', here in the identical plural: 'whale breeding-grounds'.
Locative Byname: at Hvalltrum

Hvalltr, Snf.
–– ing. (region)

From OIc. hvalr 'a whale' and ltr 'the place where animals, esp. seals and whales, lay their young', here in the singular: 'whale breeding-ground'. The one in Snf. is an error for Hlmsltr.
Locative Byname: Hvalltri, at Hvalltri

Hvalsey(jar), Greenland. (island)

From OIc. hvalr 'a whale', genitive singular hvals, and ey 'an island' or its plural eyjar: 'whale’s island(s)'.
Locative Byname:

Hvalsnesskriur, S.-Ml. (fell and land-slips)

From OIc. hvalr 'a whale', genitive singular hvals, nes 'a ness, a headland', and skria 'a land-slip (on a hillside)', nominative plural skriur: 'whale’s point land-slips'. The name appears in some versions as Hvalnesskriur, with the uninflected root hval- instead of the genitive singular hvals.
Locative Byname:

Hvalvatnsfjo˛rr, ing. (fjord)

From the place-name Hvalvatn, genitive Hvalvatns, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Hvalvatn’s fjord'. Hvalvatn, which does not appear in Landnmabk, is from hvalr 'a whale' and vatn 'water, fresh water; a lake'.
Locative Byname:

Hvammr, rn. (farm)
–– Dal. (farm)
–– Hnv.
–– Kjs. (farm)
–– Mr. (farm)
–– Skaft. (farm)
–– Skag. (farm)

OIc. hvammr 'a grassy hollow, a small vale'.
Locative Byname: Hvammi; Hvamm-

Hvann, N.-Ml. (river)

From OIc. hvo˛nn 'angelica', combining stem hvann-, and 'a river': 'angelica river'.
Locative Byname:

Hvanndalir, Eyfj. (small valley)

From OIc. hvo˛nn 'angelica', combining stem hvann-, and dalr 'a valley, a dale', here in the plural dalir: 'angelica dales'.
Locative Byname:

Hvanneyrr, Borg. (farm)

From OIc. hvo˛nn 'angelica', combining stem hvann-, and eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea': 'angelica bank'.
Locative Byname: Hvanneyri, at Hvanneyri, af Hvanneyri

Hvarf, Greenland.

OIc. hvarf has a variety of meanings, but here it is 'a tongue of land, a cape'. The etymological sense is 'a turning'.
Locative Byname:

Hvarfsgnpa, Greenland.

From OIc. hvarf 'a tongue of land, a cape', genitive singular hvarfs, and gnpa 'a peak, a jutting pinnacle', here in a variant spelling. Another name for Hvarf.
Locative Byname:

Hvassahraun, Gullbr. (lava field)

From OIc. hvass 'sharp' and hraun 'a burnt-out lava field', originally 'a rough place, a wilderness'; hvassa is the neuter nominative singular weak inflection, agreeing with the neuter noun hraun.
Locative Byname:

Hvatastair, Hnv. (farm)

From the masculine name Hvati, genitive Hvata, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Hvati’s stead(s)'. (Hvati is an original byname akin to hvatr 'active, brisk, vigorous'.)
Locative Byname: Hvatasto˛um, at Hvatasto˛um

Hvinir, Norway.

The name should perhaps be Hvnir, with a long first vowel, as it is given in some sources. Originally a fjord-name from the river-name *Hvn (from the verb hvna 'to whizz, to whistle', referring to the sound of the river; there is an associated noun hvinr 'a whizzing, whistling sound'), it also came to denote the surrounding region. The name Hvinisfjo˛rr is also used; Hvinis is the genitive of Hvinir, and OIc. fjo˛rr is 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'. (NSL s.n. Kvinesdal)
Locative Byname:

Hvinisfjo˛rr: see Hvinir.

Hvinverjadalr. (valley)

From OIc. Hvinverjar 'men of Hvinir', genitive (plural) Hvinverjar, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'valley of the men of Hvinir'. (The name actually appears in Landnmabk as Vinverjadalr, but this is known to be a defective orthography.) The exact location seems to be unknown.
Locative Byname:

Hvt, rn. (river)

–– Borg. (river)

From OIc. hvtr 'white' and 'a river': 'white river'. ( is a feminine noun, and hvt is the nominative singular feminine of the adjective in the strong declension.)
Locative Byname:

Hvtrsa, Mr. (region)

From the river-name Hvt, genitive Hvtr, and OIc. sa 'a side; a coast': 'Hvt’s side', i.e., 'land beside the Hvt'. It is also called simply Sa
Locative Byname:

Hvtbjo˛rg, Mr. (rocky area)

From OIc. hvtr 'white' and bjarg 'a boulder, a (large) rock', here in the plural bjo˛rg 'precipices, especially by the sea'. Bjo˛rg is a neuter plural, and hvt is the matching neuter nominative plural of the adjective in the strong declension. The name also occurs as Hvtabjo˛rg, with the adjective in the weak declension neuter nominative plural.
Locative Byname:

Hvtramannaland.

The name, which means 'white men’s land, land of the white men', is not so much a true compound as a noun phrase, hvtra manna land, run together as a single word. The elements are OIc. hvtr 'white', genitive plural hvtra; mar 'a person', genitive plural manna; and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country'. Landnmabk says:

at kalla sumir rland it mikla. at liggr vestr haf nr Vnlandinu ga (Vinlandi inu ga, rlandi inu ga). at er kallat VI dgra sigling vestr fr rlandi.

Some call it Ireland the Great. It lies west over the sea near the Vineland (Vinland the Good, Ireland [sic] the Good). It is called six days’ sailing west of Ireland.

Locative Byname:

Hll, rn. (farm)

OIc. hll 'a heel', probably in a metaphorical topographical sense.
Locative Byname:

Ho˛fabrekka, Skaft. (farm)

From OIc. ho˛fi 'a headland', genitive singular ho˛fa, and brekka 'a slope': 'headland’s slope'. Alternatively, the first element may be the genitive of one of the place-names Ho˛fi.
Locative Byname:

Ho˛falo˛nd, rn.

From the place-name Ho˛fi, genitive Ho˛fa, and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', here in the plural lo˛nd; 'lands associated with Ho˛fi'.
Locative Byname:

Ho˛frsandr, Skaft. (stretch of sand)

From the river-name Ho˛f, genitive Ho˛fr, and OIc. sandr 'sand; the seashore': 'sands of the Ho˛f'. The river-name, which does not occur by itself in Landnmabk, seems to be a syncopated form of ho˛fu 'chief river', from OIc. ho˛fu 'head, chief' and 'a river'. At the time of the Settlement there was a fjord, Kerlingarfjo˛rr, ‘where Ho˛frsandr is now’. The Ho˛f itself is probably the river now called the Mlakvsl.
Locative Byname:

Ho˛fastro˛nd, Skag. (stretch of coast)

From OIc. ho˛fi 'a headland', genitive singular ho˛fa, and stro˛nd 'strand, coast, shore'. Alternatively, the first element may be the genitive of one of the place-names Ho˛fi.
Locative Byname:

Ho˛fi, rn. (farm)
–– Skag. (farm)
–– (Hjo˛rleifsho˛fi), Skaft. (farm)
–– (Blandsho˛fi), Snf. (farm)
–– ing. (farm)

OIc. ho˛fi 'a headland'.
Locative Byname: Ho˛fa, Ho˛fa, at Ho˛fa, fr Ho˛fa

Ho˛fn, Borg. (farm and region)
–– Norway: see Hefn.

OIc. ho˛fn 'a harbor, a haven'.
Locative Byname: Ho˛fn

Ho˛gnastair, Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name Ho˛gni, genitive Ho˛gna, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Ho˛gni’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Ho˛gnasto˛um

Ho˛kustair, Skag. (farm)

The second element, stair, is the plural of OIc. star 'a place, a stead'. The first is probably from OIc. haka 'a chin', genitive ho˛ku, used as a byname, making this 'Chin’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname:

Ho˛radalr, Dal. (valley)

From the (plural) ethnonym Ho˛rar, genitive (plural) Ho˛ra, referring to the people of Ho˛raland, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'valley of the people from Ho˛raland'. Landnmabk says that Aur in djpga Ketils dttir gave the valley to one of her crewmen, a man named Ho˛rr, but it does not take its name from his: the genitive of Ho˛rr is Harar, so that 'Ho˛r’s valley' would be Harardalr.
Locative Byname:

Ho˛radals, Dal. (river)

From the place-name Ho˛radalr, genitive Ho˛radals, and OIc. 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Ho˛rahlar, Mr.

From the (plural) ethnonym Ho˛rar, genitive (plural) Ho˛ra, referring to the people of Ho˛raland, and OIc. hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll', here in the plural hlar: 'hills of the people from Ho˛raland'.
Locative Byname:

Ho˛raland, Norway.

From the OIc. (plural) ethnonym Ho˛rar, genitive (plural) ho˛ra, and land 'a country, a region': 'land of the Ho˛rar'. The ethnonym is from Proto-Germanic *haruōz, probably meaning 'warriors, heroes', and may originally have been Celtic. (NSL s.n. Hordaland)
Locative Byname:

Ho˛rg, Eyfj. (river)

From OIc. ho˛rgr 'a heap of stones, a cairn; a sacrificial altar; a stone altar', referring to a pre-Christian place of worship, and 'a river'; presumably the river was associated with such a place.
Locative Byname:

Ho˛rgrdalr, Eyfj. (valley)

From the river-name Ho˛rg, genitive Ho˛rgr, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'valley of the Ho˛rg river'.
Locative Byname:

Ho˛rgrdals, Eyfj. (river)

Another name for the Ho˛rg. The name is amusingly redundant: the first element, Ho˛rgrdals, is the genitive of Ho˛rgrdalr, and the last is OIc. 'a river', so the name is 'river of the valley of the Ho˛rg river'!
Locative Byname:

Ho˛rgsholt, Snf. (farm)

From OIc. ho˛rgr 'a heap of stones, a cairn; a sacrificial altar; a stone altar', referring to a pre-Christian place of worship, genitive ho˛rgs, and holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge'.
Locative Byname: Ho˛rgsholti

Ho˛skuldsr, Snf. (farm)

From the masculine name Ho˛skuldr, genitive Ho˛skulds, and OIc. 'a river', here in the plural r: 'Ho˛skuld’s rivers'. Also called Ho˛skuldsstair.
Locative Byname: at Ho˛skuldsm, Ho˛skuldsm

Ho˛skuldslkr, rn. (brook)

From the masculine name Ho˛skuldr, genitive Ho˛skulds, and OIc. lkr 'a rivulet, a brook': 'Ho˛skuld’s brook'. According to Landnmabk it is named after Ho˛skuldr orsteins son urs, who drowned there.
Locative Byname:

Ho˛skuldsstair, Dal. (farm)
–– Snf.: another name for Ho˛skuldsr. (farm)

From the masculine name Ho˛skuldr, genitive Ho˛skulds, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Ho˛skuld’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Ho˛skuldssto˛um

Ho˛skuldsvatn, ing. (lake)

From the masculine name Ho˛skuldr, genitive Ho˛skulds, and OIc. vatn 'water, fresh water; a lake': 'Ho˛skuld’s lake'.
Locative Byname:

~I~

afjo˛rr, Norway.

The second element is OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet', but the first element is obscure, as is the actual location. The place-name occurs only once, in the dative case, as afiri; forms found in other mss. include Jfiri, Jafndi, Jamfiri, and Jafnfiri.
Locative Byname:

Ingimundarholt, Hnv. (temporary farm)

From the masculine name Ingimundr, genitive Ingimundar, and OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge'; probably 'Ingimund’s copse', since it lies in a valley.
Locative Byname:

Ingjaldsgnpr, rn. (peak)

From the masculine name Ingjaldr, genitive Ingjalds, and OIc. gnpr 'a peak, an overhanging peak': 'Ingjald’s peak'.
Locative Byname:

Ingjaldshvll, Snf. (farm)

From the masculine name Ingjaldr, genitive Ingjalds, and OIc. hvll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll': 'Ingjald’s knoll'.
Locative Byname: Ingjaldshvli, at Ingjaldshvli

Ingjaldssandr, safj. (stretch of coast)

From the masculine name Ingjaldr, genitive Ingjalds, and OIc. sandr 'sand; the seashore': 'Ingjald’s sand'.
Locative Byname: at Ingjaldssandi, Ingjaldssandi

Inglfsfell, rn. (fell)

From the masculine name Inglfr, genitive Inglfs, and OIc. fell 'an isolated hill': 'Inglf’s isolated hill'.
Locative Byname:

Inglfsfjo˛rr, Strand. (fjord)

From the masculine name Inglfr, genitive Inglfs, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Inglf’s fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Inglfsho˛fahverfi, Skaft. (region)

From the place-name Inglfsho˛fi, genitive Inglfsho˛fa, and OIc. hverfi 'a cluster of farms'.
Locative Byname:

Inglfsho˛fi, Skaft. (headland)

From the masculine name Inglfr, genitive Inglfs, and OIc. ho˛fi 'a headland': 'Inglf’s headland'.
Locative Byname:

r (rar), Rang. (river)

From OIc. rar 'Irishmen', genitive ra, and 'a river': 'Irish river, river of the Irishmen'. Landnmabk explicitly gives this derivation. r is presumably contracted from *ra-; rar exceptionally contains the nominative case, contrary to the usual formation of such compounds.
Locative Byname:

rland.

The OIc. name of Ireland, 'land of the rar'.
Locative Byname:

rland it mikla.

See Hvtramannaland.
Locative Byname:

safjarardjp. (fjord)

From OIc. ss 'ice', genitive plural sa, fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet', genitive fjarar, and djp 'deep water; a deep place; the deep sea off the shore': 'ice fjord’s deep'. The name safjarardjp now refers to a long fjord in northwestern Iceland, one of the deepest in the country, often called simply Djpi 'The Deep'; a number of small fjords extend inland from it, of which the innermost (southernmost) is called safjrur. In Landnmabk and other older sources, however, safjo˛rr, the older form of safjrur, was the name of the entire fjord, and safjarardjp was the name of the deep, narrow channels that go out from the fjord. (See the Icelandic Wikipedia s.v. safjarardjp.)
Locative Byname:

safjo˛rr. (fjord)

From OIc. ss 'ice', genitive plural sa, fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'ice fjord'. See safjarardjp.
Locative Byname:

sland.

Iceland. From OIc. ss 'ice' and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country': 'ice land'. The English name of the country is an exact translation.
Locative Byname:

slandshaf.

From the place-name sland, genitive slands, and OIc. haf 'the sea, especially the high sea, the ocean': 'Iceland’s sea', referring to the part of the Arctic Ocean immediately north of Iceland.
Locative Byname:

sleifsstair, Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name sleifr, genitive sleifs, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural as stair: 'sleif’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: sleifssto˛um

sro˛arstair, Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name sro˛r, genitive sro˛ar, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural as stair: 'sro˛’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: sro˛arsto˛um

~J~

Jaarr, Norway.

OIc. jaarr 'edge, border'. This is the original form of several Norwegian place-names, including Jren, the name of a coastal region in southwest Norway that is probably meant here. (NPL s.n. Jren, s.v. jadar.)
Locative Byname:

Jafnaskar (Jannaskar), Mr. (pass and farm)

From OIc. jafn 'even; equal' and skar 'a mountain pass; a notch'; here, however, jafn has the same sense as in jafna 'level ground, a plain', much as in the English expression 'even ground'.
Locative Byname:

Jamtaland, Sweden.

The second element is OIc. land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country'. The people who lived there were the Jamtar 'Jamts', genitive plural Jamta, so the name as a whole is 'Jamts’s land, land of the Jamts'. The modern Swedish name is Jmtland.
Locative Byname:

Jarfallsgil, safj. (ravine)

From OIc. jarfall 'an earth-slip', genitive jarfalls, and gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom'. (Jarfall itself is a fairly transparent compound of jar-, the root of jo˛r 'earth', and fall 'a fall'.)
Locative Byname:

Jarlangsstair, Mr. (farm)

The second element, stair, is the plural of OIc. star 'a place, a stead'. According to Landnmabk, the original settler was orgeirr jarlangr; the first element is the genitive of his byname, so that the place is 'Jarlang’s stead(s)'. The byname is a compound of jar-, the root of jo˛r 'earth', and langr 'long'. Its sense is uncertain; one possibility is 'tall person from a place called Jo˛r'.
Locative Byname: Jarlangssto˛um

Jlgeirsstair, Rang. (farm)

From the masculine name Jlgeirr, genitive Jlgeirs, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Jlgeir’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Jlgeirssto˛um

Jrunnarstair, Eyfj. (farm)

From the feminine name Jrunn, genitive Jrunnar, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Jrunn’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Jrunnarsto˛um

Jo˛kuls (Hrasvo˛tn), Skag. (river)
–– Lni, Skaft. (river)
–– Breiamerkursandi, Skaft. (river)
–– Slheimasandi, Skaft. (river)
–– Dal, N.-Ml. (river)
–– Fjo˛llum, ing. (river)

From OIc. jo˛kull 'an icicle; ice; a glacier', genitive jo˛kuls, and 'a river'. In Iceland the primary sense of jo˛kull is 'glacier', and the place-name is 'glacial river'. The modifying prepositional phrases – Lni, Dal, etc. – do not appear in Landnmabk; at some point they must have been added to distinguish one Jo˛kuls from another, but I don’t know when this occurred. Hrasvtn is the modern name of the first river in the list, a compound of hras, the genitive of hra 'a district' and vtn, the nominative plural of vatn 'water, fresh water; a lake'; the literal sense is 'district’s waters'.
Locative Byname:

Jo˛kulsdalr, N.-Ml. (valley)

From OIc. jo˛kull 'a glacier', genitive jo˛kuls, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'glacier valley'. This is the valley of the Jo˛kuls Dal.
Locative Byname:

Jo˛kulsfell, Skaft. (fell)

From OIc. jo˛kull 'a glacier', genitive jo˛kuls, and fell 'an isolated hill': 'glacier hill'.
Locative Byname:

Jo˛kulsfirir, safj. (fjords)

From OIc. jo˛kull 'a glacier', genitive jo˛kuls, and firir, the plural of fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'glacier fjords'.
Locative Byname:

Jo˛kul(s)vkr (Jo˛kuls Slheimasandi), Skaft. (river)

From OIc. jo˛kull 'a glacier', genitive jo˛kuls, vk 'an inlet, a small bay', genitive vkr, and 'a river': 'glacier inlet river'. In one of the mss. the river is called simply Jo˛kuls; Jkuls Slheimasandi is its modern name.
Locative Byname:

Jo˛lduhlaup, Ireland. (promontory)

From OIc. jalda 'a mare', genitive jo˛ldu, and hlaup 'a leap': 'mare’s leap'. The exact location in Ireland seems to be unknown.
Locative Byname:

Jo˛ldusteinn, Rang.

From OIc. jalda 'a mare', genitive jo˛ldu, and steinn 'a stone, a boulder, a rock': 'mare’s stone'. In Brennu-Njls saga the name appears as O˛ldusteinn, whose first element, o˛ldu, is the genitive of alda 'a wave, a roller', making it 'wave(’s) rock'. Neither name survives; the place is probably the free-standing rock now called Lausalda.
Locative Byname:

Jo˛rundarfell, Hnv. (fell)

From the masculine personal name Jo˛rundr, genitive Jo˛rundar, and OIc. fell 'an isolated hill': 'Jo˛rund’s isolated hill'.
Locative Byname:

Jo˛rundarholt (Garar Akranesi), Borg. (farm)

From the masculine personal name Jo˛rundr, genitive Jo˛rundar, and OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge'; probably 'Jo˛rund’s wood'. This was the original name; by the time of Landnmabk it was known as Garar.
Locative Byname: Jo˛rundarholti

Jo˛surei, Norway. (island)

An island near Borgund. The etymology of Jo˛sur is uncertain; the second element is apparently OIc. ei 'an isthmus, a neck of land'. (The name also appears as Jo˛surhei, but this form appears to be erroneous.)
Locative Byname:

~K~

Kald, Snf. (river)

From OIc. kaldr 'cold' and 'a river': 'cold river'.
Locative Byname:

Kaldrss, Snf. (river-mouth)

From the place-name Kald, genitive Kaldr, and OIc. ss 'mouth of a river or lake'
Locative Byname:

Kaldakinn, Dal. (region)
–– ing. (region)

From OIc. kaldr 'cold', here in the weak nominative singular feminine inflection kalda, and kinn 'a cheek', and as a topographical term 'a mountain slope': 'cold slope'.
Locative Byname:

Kaldaklofs, Rang. (river)

From the place-name Kaldaklof, genitive Kaldaklofs, and OIc. 'a river'. Kaldaklof is a broad mountain pass; its name is from OIc. kaldr 'cold', here in the neuter nominative singular of the weak declension, and klof 'a crotch' (i.e., 'something that is cleft').
Locative Byname:

Kaldakvsl (Tungufljt), rn. (river)

From OIc. kaldr 'cold', here in the feminine nominative singular of the weak declension, and kvsl 'a fork or branch of a river': 'cold branch'. Tungufljt is the modern name, from the place-name Tunga, genitive Tungu, and OIc. fljt 'a fast-moving river or stream'.
Locative Byname:

Kaldbakr, Strand. (fell and farm)

From OIc. kaldr 'cold' and bakr 'a back, a ridge': 'cold back or ridge'. The name refers both to a mountain and to a farm on the adjacent cove Kaldbaksvk; the locative byname refers to the farm.
Locative Byname: Kaldbak

Kaldbaksvk, Strand. (cove)

From the mountain name Kaldbakr, genitive Kaldbaks, and OIc. vk 'an inlet, a small bay': 'Kaldbak’s cove'.
Locative Byname:

Klf, rn. (river)

From OIc. klfr 'a calf' and 'a river': 'calf river'.
Locative Byname:

Klfagrafir, Skaft.

From OIc. klfr, genitive plural klfa, and gro˛f 'a pit, a ditch; a grave', here in the plural: 'calves’ pits'.
Locative Byname:

Klfborgar (Kolborgar), ing. (river)

From OIc. klfr 'a calf', borg 'a small hill', genitive borgar, and 'a river': 'calf’s hill river'. The variant Kolborgar appears to be an error.
Locative Byname:

Klfskinn, Eyfj. (farm)

From the masculine name Klfr, genitive Klfs, or OIc. klfr 'a calf', genitive klfs, and kinn 'a cheek', and as a topographical term 'a mountain slope': 'Klf’s slope' or 'calf’s slope'.
Locative Byname: Klfskinni

Kallnesingahreppr, rn.

From Kallnesingar 'inhabitants of Kallnes', genitive (plural) Kallnesinga, and OIc. hreppr 'a poor-law district': 'poor-law district of the inhabitants of Kallnes'. However, this sense of hreppr postdates the introduction of Christianity to Iceland, so either the name is an anachronism in Landnmabk, or the word originally had a somewhat different sense.

The name also appears as Kaldnesingahreppr, as if the underlying place-name were Kaldnes 'cold point', from OIc. kaldr 'cold' and nes 'a ness, a headland'. According to Prof. Svavar Sigmundsson of the Department of Name Studies of the rni Magnsson Institute for Icelandic Studies, however, the place-name was originally Kallaarnes, because it was from there that the ferryman was summoned (kalla 'called to') by those wishing to cross the O˛lfus. (See here in answer to the question dated 06. 4, 2005.)
Locative Byname:

Kalmans (al. Kalmars), Borg. (river)

From the masculine name Kalman(n), genitive Kalmans, and OIc. 'a river': 'Kalman’s river'. The name is probably a borrowing of Old Irish Colmn, and Landnmabk does imply that the river was named after a man from the Hebrides. His name is also given as Kalmarr and that of the river as Kalmars, but this appears to be an error.
Locative Byname:

Kalmanstunga, Mr. (region and farm)

From the masculine name Kalman(n), genitive Kalmans, and OIr. tunga 'a tongue of land' (also, as in English, used of the body part and in the sense 'a language'): 'Kalman’s tongue of land'.
Locative Byname: Kalmanstungu

Kambakista, rn. (farm)

From OIc. kambr 'a comb; a crest; a ridge of hills', genitive plural kamba, and kista 'a chest; a coffin'. The name suggests a pocket enclosed by a ridge of hills, but the location is unknown.
Locative Byname: Kambakistu

Kambr, Snf. (farm)

OIc. kambr 'a comb; a crest; a ridge of hills'.
Locative Byname: fr Kambi

Kambsdalr, S.-Ml. (valley)

From OIc. kambr 'a comb; a crest; a ridge of hills', genitive kambs, and dalr 'a valley, a dale'.
Locative Byname:

Kambsnes, Dal. (ness)

From OIc. kambr 'a comb; a crest; a ridge of hills', genitive kambs, and nes 'a ness, a headland'. It is said to have been named by Aur in djpga Ketils dttir when she lost her comb there.
Locative Byname: Kambsnesi; af Kambsnesi

Kampaholt, rn. (farm)

The second element is OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge'. The place was apparently named after orgrmr kampi O˛zurar son, whose nickname kampi is 'a bearded or moustached person'; its genitive is kampa, and the place-name is 'Kampi’s copse or ridge'.
Locative Byname: Kampaholti

Karlafjo˛rr, (?) (fjord and farm)

From the masculine name Karli, genitive Karla, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Karli’s fjord'.
Locative Byname: Karlafiri

Karlastair, Hnv. (farm)
–– Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name Karli, genitive Karla, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Karli’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Karlasto˛um

Karls, Eyfj. (farm)

From the masculine name Karl, genitive Karls, and OIc. 'a river': 'Karl’s river'.
Locative Byname: at Karls

Karlsbrekka (Hrmundarstair), Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name Karl, genitive Karls, and OIc. brekka 'a slope': 'Karl’s slope'. (Karls could also be the genitive of karl 'a man (as opposed to a woman); a man of the common people; an old man'.) This is the modern place-name, which was already in use when Landnmabk was written down; it also appears in the variant Kallsbrekka. The original name, according to Landnmabk, was Hrmundarstair 'Hrmund’s stead(s)', from the masculine name Hrmundr, genitive Hrmundar, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair.
Locative Byname: at Karlsbrekku; Hrmundarsto˛um

Karlsdalr, Mr. (small valley)

From the masculine name Karl, genitive Karls, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Karl’s dale'.
Locative Byname:

Karlsfell, Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name Karl, genitive Karls, and OIc. fell 'an isolated hill': 'Karl’s isolated hill'.
Locative Byname: undir Karlsfelli

Karns, Hnv. (farm)

The second element is OIc. 'a river'. The first element is uncertain. It may be from OIc. krn 'a kind of bird', in which case the name was Krns 'bird’s river'. However, the name also occurs as Korns; this, which is also the modern form, suggests that the first element might be the genitive of korn 'corn, grain'.
Locative Byname: fr Karns

Karnsrland (Korns-), Hnv.

From the place-name Karns, genitive Karnsr, and OIc. land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country': 'land associated with Karns'.
Locative Byname:

Krsstair, Snf. (farm)

From the masculine name Krr, genitive Krs, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Kr’s stead(s)'. This was not the original name: Landnmabk says Hann bj ar, sem n heitir Krssto˛um 'He settled at the place that is now called at Krsstair' but does not give an earlier name.
Locative Byname: Krssto˛um

Katanes, Borg. (farm)
–– Rang. (farm)
–– Scotland. (region)

The second element is OIc. nes 'a ness, a headland'. Despite the missing t, the first element is apparently from OIc. ko˛ttr 'a cat', genitive plural katta: 'cats’ point'. Katanes in Scotland is Caithness, and a number of Old Irish place-names in northern Scotland and the Northern Isles suggest that ‘Cats’ may have been the designation of the dominant tribe in the region. It has been suggested that this was the original Katanes and the source of the Icelandic instances of the place-name; in this connection it is perhaps significant that the first settler at Katanes in Borgarfjararssla (according to Landnmabk) was Irish.
Locative Byname: Katanesi

Keflavk, Bar. (bay)

From OIc. kefli 'a stick, a piece of wood, a cylinder (of wood)', genitive plural kefla, and vk 'an inlet, a small bay'; the sense is probably 'driftwood bay'.
Locative Byname:

Keldudalr, safj. (valley)

From OIc. kelda 'a well, a spring; a bog, a quagmire', genitive keldu, and dalr 'a valley, a dale'.
Locative Byname:

Keldugnpr, Skaft. (farm)

From OIc. kelda 'a well, a spring; a bog, a quagmire', and gnpr 'a peak, an overhanging peak'.
Locative Byname: at Keldugnpi; fr Keldugnpi

Kelduhverfi, ing. (region)

From OIc. kelda 'a well, a spring; a bog, a quagmire', and hverfi 'a cluster of farms'.
Locative Byname:

Keldunes, ing. (farm)

From OIc. kelda 'a well, a spring; a bog, a quagmire', and nes 'a ness, a headland'.
Locative Byname:

Kerlingar, Skaft. (river)

From OIc. kerling 'woman, wife; old woman', genitive kerlingar, and 'a river': 'old woman’s river'.
Locative Byname:

Kerlingarfjo˛rr, Skaft. (fjord)

From OIc. kerling 'woman, wife; old woman', genitive kerlingar, and fjo˛rr 'fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'old woman’s inlet'. Landnmabk says that Eysteinn orsteins son threw a certain kerling off his ship here.
Locative Byname:

Kerseyrr (Kjo˛rseyrr), Strand. (farm)

The second element is OIc. eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea', now Ic eyri. The first element is a bit uncertain: the place-name appears as Kerseyrr, Kjo˛rseyrr, and Korseyrr, the modern form being Kjrseyri. On balance I think it likely that the element is from OIc. kjarr ~ kjo˛rr 'brushwood, a thicket', genitive kjars ~ kjo˛rs, a word whose first syllable in Proto-Scandinavian was *ker-.
Locative Byname: Kerseyri, Kjo˛rseyri

Ketilseyrr, safj. (farm)

From the masculine name Ketill, genitive Ketils, and OIc. eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea': 'Ketil’s sandbank'.
Locative Byname: Ketilseyri, at Ketilseyri

Ketilsfjo˛rr, Greenland. (fjord)

From the masculine name Ketill, genitive Ketils, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Ketil’s fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Ketilsstair, Dal. (farm)
–– S.-Ml. (farm)

From the masculine name Ketill, genitive Ketils, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Ketil’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Ketilssto˛um

Kijaberg, rn. (farm)

From OIc. ki 'a kid', genitive plural kija, and berg 'elevated rocky ground; a rock, a boulder; a cliff, a precipice': 'kids’ rock'.
Locative Byname: at Kijabergi; fr Kijabergi

Kijafell, Kjs. (farm)

From OIc. ki 'a kid', genitive plural kija, and fell 'an isolated hill': 'kids’ hill'.
Locative Byname: at Kijafelli

Kijaklettr (Kijaleit), Skaft.

From OIc. ki 'a kid', genitive plural kija, and klettr 'a rock, a crag': 'kids’ rock'. In some versions the place-name is given as Kijaleit, whose second element seems to be leit 'a search, exploration', possibly in reference to the annual autumn search for sheep in the mountain pastures.
Locative Byname:

Kirkjublstar, Borg. (farm)

From OIc. kirkja 'a church', genitive kirkju, and blstar 'a homestead, a farm; an abode': the farm belonging to (or perhaps simply by) a church.
Locative Byname: Kirkjublsta

Kirkjubr, Rang. (farm)
–– Skaft. (farm)

From OIc. kirkja 'a church', genitive kirkju, and br 'a farmhouse, a farmstead': the farmstead belonging to (or perhaps simply by) a church.
Locative Byname: Kirkjub; r Kirkjub

Kirkjufell, Snf. (farm)

From OIc. kirkja 'a church', genitive kirkju, and fell 'an isolated hill'.
Locative Byname: Kirkjufelli

Kirkjufjo˛rr, Snf. (fjord)

From OIc. kirkja 'a church', genitive kirkju, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Kirkjusandr, Borg. (stretch of coast)

From OIc. kirkja 'a church', genitive kirkju, and sandr 'sand; the seashore'.
Locative Byname:

Kjalarnes (Krossnes), Kjs. (ness)

From OIc. kjo˛lr 'a keel; a keel-shaped range of mountains', genitive kjalar, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'keel’s point'. In one version it is called Krossnes 'cross point', from OIc. kross 'a cross'.
Locative Byname:

Kjlkafjo˛rr, Bar. (fjord)

From OIc. kjlki 'a jawbone; a hand sledge', genitive kjlka, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'. It was apparently named after the original settler, Geirsteinn kjlki.
Locative Byname:

Kjallakshll, Dal. (hill)

From the masculine name Kjallakr, genitive Kjallaks, and OIc. hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll': 'Kjallak’s knoll'. According to Landnmabk, a boy named Kjallakr was killed there.
Locative Byname:

Kjallaksstair, Dal. (farm)

From the masculine name Kjallakr, genitive Kjallaks, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Kjallak’s stead(s)'. (The name Kjallakr is a borrowing of Old Irish Cellach.)
Locative Byname: Kjallakssto˛um

Kjaransvk, safj.

From the masculine name Kjaran, genitive Kjarans, and OIc. vk 'an inlet, a small bay': 'Kjaran’s inlet'. (The name Kjaran is a borrowing of Old Irish Ciarn.)
Locative Byname: Kjaransvk

Kjarr, Mr. (river)

From OIc. kjarr 'brushwood, a thicket' and 'a river': 'brushwood river'.
Locative Byname:

Kjarradalr, Mr. (valley)

From OIc. kjarr 'brushwood, a thicket' and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'brushwood valley'. Possibly the valley of the Kjarr.
Locative Byname:

Kjs, Kjs. (region)

OIc. kjs 'a deep or hollow place; a small valley'.
Locative Byname:

Kjo˛lr ( Kjalvegi).

OIc. kjo˛lr 'a keel; a keel-shaped range of mountains'. This is the pass (such as it is) between the Hofsjkull and Langjkull icecaps, on the Kjalvegr 'keel-way', an old north-south route through the Icelandic Highlands.
Locative Byname: Kili

Kjo˛lvararstair, Borg. (farm)

From the feminine name Kjo˛lvo˛r, genitive Kjo˛lvarar, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Kjo˛lvo˛r’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Kjo˛lvararsto˛um

Kleifar, Dal. (farm)
–– Strand.

The plural of OIc. kleif 'a cliff, a rocky ascent'.
Locative Byname: at Klo˛fum

Kleifarlo˛nd, S.-Ml.

From OIc. kleif 'a cliff, a rocky ascent', genitive kleifar, and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', here in the plural lo˛nd.
Locative Byname:

Klif, Mr.

OIc. klif 'a cliff'.
Locative Byname:

Klofasteinar, Dal.

The second element, steinar, is the plural of OIc. steinn 'a stone, a boulder, a rock'. The first is apparently klofi 'a cleft or rift', genitive (singular and plural) klofa: 'cleft stones, cloven stones'.
Locative Byname:

Klofningar, Dal. (rocky area)

The plural of OIc. klofningr 'anything that is cloven'.
Locative Byname:

Knafahlar (Knappa-), Rang.

The second element, hlar, is the plural of OIc. hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll'; the etymology of Knafa- is uncertain. One version makes the place-name Knappahlar, as if from knappr 'a knob; a button', genitive plural knappa, but this is considered an error.
Locative Byname:

Knappadalr, Snf.

The second element is OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale'; the first is the genitive of knappi, the nickname of orgils knappi, the settler who initially took the valley, so the place-name is 'Knappi’s dale'. The interpretation of the nickname is uncertain. It could be derived from knappr 'a knob; a button'. However, if Ic knappur 'scanty; terse, concise' is not borrowed, but rather goes back to an OIc. *knappr of similar meaning, it would also be a plausible source of the nickname.
Locative Byname:

Knappsstair, Skag. (farm)

The second element is OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair. The original settler was rr knappr, and the first element of the place-name is the genitive of his nickname: 'Knapp’s stead(s)'. The nickname may be OIc. knappr 'a knob; a button', but if Ic knappur 'scanty; terse, concise' is not borrowed, but rather goes back to an OIc. *knappr of similar meaning, it would also be a plausible nickname.
Locative Byname: Knappssto˛um

Knarrarnes, Mr. (ness)

From OIc. kno˛rr 'a ship, especially a merchant ship (and not a warship)', genitive knarrar, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'merchant-ship’s point'.
Locative Byname:

Knefilsdals, N.-Ml. (river)

From a place-name Knefilsdalr, genitive Knefilsdals, and OIc. 'a river'. Knefilsdalr is apparently from knefill 'a post, a pole; a crossbeam', genitive knefils, and dalr 'a valley, a dale'. However, the river-name appears in one source in its modern form, Hnefilsdals, and the valley is now Hnefilsdalur (corresponding to an OIc. Hnefilsdalr), so it isn’t clear what the original name was. If Hnefils- is correct, it would be the genitive of an otherwise unattested *hnefill, perhaps a nickname related to hnefi 'a fist'.
Locative Byname:

Kolbeinsrss, Skag. (river-mouth)

From the place-name Kolbeins, genitive Kolbeinsr, and OIc. ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake'. Kolbeins if from the masculine name Kolbeinn, genitive Kolbeins, and 'a river': 'Kolbein’s river'. Kolbeinsrss, now called Kalkus, was an important Viking harbor.
Locative Byname:

Kolbeinsdalr, Skag. (valley)

From the masculine name Kolbeinn, genitive Kolbeins, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Kolbein’s dale'.
Locative Byname:

Kolbeinsey. (island)

From the masculine name Kolbeinn, genitive Kolbeins, and OIc. ey 'an island': 'Kolbein’s island'.
Locative Byname:

Kolbeinsstair, Snf. (farm)

From the masculine name Kolbeinn, genitive Kolbeins, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Kolbein’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Kolbeinssto˛um

Kolbeinsvk, Strand. (inlet)

From the masculine name Kolbeinn, genitive Kolbeins, and OIc. vk 'an inlet, a small bay': 'Kolbein’s inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Kolgrafafjo˛rr, Snf. (fjord)

From OIc. kolgro˛f 'a charcoal pit', genitive plural kolgrafa, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'charcoal-pits’ fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Kolgrafir, Snf. (farm)

The plural of OIc. kolgro˛f 'a charcoal pit': '(the) charcoal pits'.
Locative Byname: at Kolgro˛fum

Kolkumrar, Hnv. (boggy stretch)

The second element, mrar, is the plural of OIc. mrr 'a bog, a swamp, a mire'. The first is the genitive of kolka, the nickname of orbjo˛rn kolka, the original settler. The meaning of the nickname is unknown.
Locative Byname:

Kollafjararheir, Bar. (stretch of heath)

From the place-name Kollafjo˛rr, genitive Kollafjarar, and OIc. heir 'a heath, a moor'.
Locative Byname:

Kollafjo˛rr, Bar. (fjord)
–– Strand. (fjord)

From the masculine name Kolli, genitive Kolla, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Kolli’s fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Kollavk, ing. (inlet)

From the masculine name Kolli, genitive Kolla, and OIc. vk 'an inlet, a small bay': 'Kolli’s inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Kollshamarr (-hamrar), Borg.

From the masculine name Kollr, genitive Kolls, and OIc. hamarr, literally 'a hammer', but as a topographical term 'a hammer-shaped crag, a steep rock, a precipice': 'Koll’s crag'. The name also appears in the plural hamrar: 'Koll’s crags'.
Locative Byname:

Kollslkr, Borg. (brook and farm)

From the masculine name Kollr, genitive Kolls, and OIc. lkr 'a rivulet, a brook': 'Koll’s brook'.
Locative Byname: at Kollslk, Kollslk

Kollsveinsstair, Skag. (farm)

From the masculine name Kollsveinn, genitive Kollsveins, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Kollsvein’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Kollsveinssto˛um

Kollsvk, Bar. (inlet)

From the masculine name Kollr, genitive Kolls, and OIc. vk 'an inlet, a small bay': 'Koll’s inlet'.
Locative Byname: Kollsvk

Kolssonafell, Snf.(?)

From the masculine name Kolr, genitive Kols, and OIc. sonr, genitive plural sona, and fell 'an isolated hill': 'Kol’s sons’ hill'. In some versions the name appears as Kollssonafell, as if the father’s name were Kollr.
Locative Byname:

Kpanes, Bar. (ness)

From OIc. kpr 'a young seal', genitive plural kpa, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'seals’ point'.
Locative Byname:

Kranes, Mr. (ness)

From the masculine name Kri, genitive Kra, and OIc. nes 'a ness, a headland': 'Kri’s point'. A thrall named Kri is said to have been killed here.
Locative Byname:

Kraunaheir, ing. (heath)

The second element is OIc. heir 'a heath, a moor'; the first is obscure.
Locative Byname:

Krist(s)nes, Eyfj. (farm)

From OIc. Kristr 'Christ' and nes 'a ness, a headland'. Krist is the usual combining form, making Kristnes 'Christ point'. The name is also found in the variant Kristsnes, with the first element in the genitive, Krists: 'Christ’s point'.
Locative Byname: Krist(s)nesi

Krkr, Mr. (small valley)

OIc. krkr 'a hook; a curve, a bend; a nook, a corner'.
Locative Byname:

Krksdalr: see Krksfjo˛rr.

Krksfjararmli, Bar. (fell)

From the place-name Krksfjo˛rr, genitive Krksfjarar, and OIc. mli 'a projecting mountain, a jutting crag (between two fjords, valleys, or the like)'.
Locative Byname:

Krksfjararnes, Bar. (ness and farm)

From the place-name Krksfjo˛rr, genitive Krksfjarar, and OIc. nes 'a ness, a headland'.
Locative Byname:

Krksfjo˛rr, Bar. (fjord)

The second element is OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'; the second is the genitive of krkr 'a hook; a curve, a bend; a nook, a corner', the nickname of rarinn krkr, the original settler, making the place-name 'Krk’s fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Kroppr, Eyfj. (farm)

Apparently OIc. kroppr 'a hump or bunch on any part of that body; the body, the trunk', presumably used in some topographical sense.
Locative Byname: at Kroppi

Kross, Rang. (river)

From OIc. kross 'a cross' and 'a river': 'cross river'.
Locative Byname:

Krossss, ing.

From OIc. kross 'a cross' and ss 'a thick pole, a main beam in a house; a yard of a sail; a rocky ridge', presumably used here in the topographical sense. The original settlers are said to have raised a cross here.
Locative Byname:

Krossavk, N.-Ml. (inlet and farm)
–– S.-Ml. (inlet and farm)

From OIc. kross 'a cross', genitive plural krossa, and vk 'an inlet, a small bay'.
Locative Byname: Krossavk

Krosshlar, Dal. (rocky area)

From OIc. kross and hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll', here in the plural hlar: 'cross knolls'. Landnmbk says that Aur in djpga Ketils dttir had crosses raised here v at hn var skr ok vel tru 'because she was baptized and a devout believer'.
Locative Byname:

Krossnes: see Kjalarnes.

Krsuvk (Krsuvk), Gullbr. (inlet and region)

The second element is OIc. vk 'an inlet, a small bay'; the etymology of the first is unknown. Both spellings are found even today, but Krsuvk appears to be the older.
Locative Byname:

Krklingahl, Eyfj. (district)

The second element is OIc. hl 'a mountainside, a slope'. According to Landnmabk it was settled by the sons of O˛ndtt krka, called the Krklingar 'crow-lings', genitive plural Krklinga, after their father’s nickname krka 'a crow'.
Locative Byname:

Kro˛fluhellir, Hnv.

The second element is OIc. hellir 'a cave, a cavern'. The first appears to be the genitive of krafla, the nickname of orkell krafla: according to Landnmabk, he hid here behind a waterfall, so it’s 'Krafla’s cave'. According to Vatnsdla saga, he had been exposed at birth; the men who found him saw that something had been spread over his face at which he had kraflai 'pawed', from krafla 'to paw or scrabble with the hands'. This does not, however, explain why there is a volcano named Krafla.
Locative Byname:

Kafljt, Skaft. (river)

The second element is OIc. fljt 'a river, generally a fast-moving stream'; according to Landnmabk, the first element is from Ki, the name of the ship in which Vilbaldr Dufaks son first sailed into its mouth, so that the river is 'Kdi’s river'. The meaning of the ship’s name is unclear, but modern Ic ki is 'a weak, sickly person; a small creature; a (wooden) container', and either of the last two senses might be appropriate names for a ship.
Locative Byname:

Kvernvgastro˛nd, Norway.

The various versions show considerable variation in the first element of the place-name, and it is not clear whether it should be Kvern- or Kvenn-. If Kvern-, it would be from OIc. kvern 'a quern-stone, a millstone; a quern, a handmill'; if Kvenn-, from kvenna 'a woman'. Both are found in other Norwegian place-names. The rest of the name is from vgr 'a creek, a bay', genitive plural vga, and stro˛nd 'strand, coast, shore': 'coves’ strand'.
Locative Byname: Kvernvgastro˛nd

Kv, Skaft. (river)

From OIc. kv 'a fold, a pen (e.g., for sheep)' and 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Kvabekkr, Eyfj. (farm)

From OIc. kv 'a fold, a pen (e.g., for sheep)', genitive plural kva, and bekkr 'a rivulet, a brook'. (This is an unusual place-name, in that the element bekkr is rare in Iceland and largely confined to poetic usage; the usual term is lkr).
Locative Byname: at Kvabekk, Kvabekk

Kvgandafjo˛rr (Kvgandisfjo˛rr), Bar. (fjord)

From OIc. kvgendi 'a young cow or bullock', genitive kvganda, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'. The textual variant Kvgandisfjo˛rr foreshadows the modern name, Kvgindisfjo˛rur.
Locative Byname:

Kvgandanes, Bar. (ness)

From OIc. kvgendi 'a young cow or bullock', genitive kvganda, and nes 'a ness, a headland'.
Locative Byname:

Kvguvgabjrg, Gullbr.

From OIc. kvga 'a young cow, a heifer', genitive kvgu, vgr 'a creek, a bay', genitive plural vga, and bjarg 'a boulder, a (large) rock', here in the plural bjo˛rg 'precipices, especially by the sea'. The place, now called Vogastapi is a precipitous cliff between the coves now called Njarvk and Vogarvk. On Vogavk is the community of Vogar, whose old name was Kvguvgar 'heifer’s coves'.
Locative Byname:

Klanshlar (Klanshlmar), Borg. (?)

From the masculine name Klan, genitive Klans, and the plural of either OIc. hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll' or hlmr 'a holm, an islet': 'Klan’s knoll or holm'. Klan Kra son is said to have been killed there; see Brenna.
Locative Byname:

~L~

Lagarfljt. (river)

The first element, lagar, is the genitive of OIc. lo˛gr 'the sea; water, any liquid', a term also applied to some large lakes and estuaries. The second is fljt 'a river, a lake', the latter sense usually only in proper nouns; it connotes a fast-moving stream as opposed to lkr, a slow-moving brook. The river does in fact run through a fairly large lake. Also called simply Fljt.
Locative Byname:

Lagarfljtsstrandir. (region)

From the place-name Lagarfljt, genitive Lagarfljts, and OIc. stro˛ 'strand, coast, shore', here in the plural strandir: 'Lagarfljt’s strands'.
Locative Byname:

Lgey, Skaft. (farm)

From OIc. lgr 'low' and ey 'an island': 'low island'. One version calls it Laxey 'salmon island', from lax 'a salmon'.
Locative Byname: Lgey

Lambafells, Rang. (river)

From OIc. lamb 'a lamb', genitive plural lamba, fell 'an isolated hill', genitive fells, and 'a river': 'lambs’ hill river'.
Locative Byname:

Lambastair, Mr. (farm)
–– Rang.

The two place-names have slightly different origins. The second is from the masculine name Lambi, genitive Lamba, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair. The name Lambi was originally a byname derived from OIc. lamb 'a lamb', and Lambastair in Mrassla has as its first element the genitive, lamba, of the byname of orgeirr lambi. Thus, both are 'Lambi’s stead(s)', though the personal references are of slightly different types.
Locative Byname: Lambasto˛um

Landamt, ing.

From OIc. land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', genitive plural landa, and mt 'a meeting; a town-meeting; a joint, a juncture'. It has the last sense in rmt 'a meeting of waters' (from 'a river', genitive r), and the local topography suggests that the name may refer to the meeting of two usable valleys separated by barren hills.
Locative Byname:

Landbrot, Skag.

Either OIc. landbrot 'a desolation of land by sea or rivers', or a more literal compound of land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', and brot 'a breaking, a fracture'.
Locative Byname:

Lang, Mr. (river)

From OIc. langr 'long' and 'a river': 'long river'.
Locative Byname:

Langadalr, Hnv. (valley)
–– Snf. (two valleys)

From OIc. langr 'long' and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'long dale'. The spelling is slightly unexpected: dalr is masculine, so one would expect Langidalr.
Locative Byname: Langadal; r Langadal

Langadals, safj. (river)
–– Snf. (river)

From the place-name Langadalr, genitive Langadals, and OIc. 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Langaholt, Snf. (ridge)
–– Skag. (ridge)

From OIc. langr 'long', here in the neuter nominative singular of the weak declension, and holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge'.
Locative Byname: Langaholti

Langanes, safj. (ness)
–– Rang. (ness)
–– ing. (ness)

From OIc. langr 'long', here in the neuter nominative singular of the weak declension, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'long ness'.
Locative Byname:

Langavatnsdalr, Mr. (valley)

From the place-name Langavatn, genitive Langavatns, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Langavatn’s valley'. Langavatn is from OIc. langr 'long', here in the neuter nominative singular of the weak declension, and vatn 'water, fresh water, a lake': 'long lake'. The lake is drained by the Lang.
Locative Byname:

Laugar: see Lundar.

Laugarbrekka, Snf. (farm)

From OIc. laug 'a bath; a hot spring', genitive laugar, and brekka 'a slope': 'hot spring’s slope'.
Locative Byname: at Laugarbrekku, Laugarbrekku-

Laugardalr, rn. (valley)
–– safj. (valley)

From OIc. laug 'a bath; a hot spring', genitive laugar, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'hot spring’s valley'.
Locative Byname:

Lax (Str-), rn. (river)
–– Borg. (river)
–– Kjs. (river)
–– (1) Snf. (river)
–– (2) Snf. (river)
–– ing. (river)

From OIc. lax 'a salmon' and 'a river': 'salmon river'. The modifier Str- is 'Great-'; I don’t know how early it was applied.
Locative Byname:

Laxrdalr, Dal. (valley)
–– Skag. (valley)
–– ing. (valley)

From the place-name Lax, genitive Laxr, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale'.
Locative Byname: Laxrdal

Laxey: see Lgey.

Leilfsfell, Skaft. (fell)

From the masculine name Leilfr, genitive Leilfs, and OIc. fell 'an isolated hill': 'Leilf’s hill'.
Locative Byname:

Leilfsstair, rn. (farm)
–– Skaft. (farm)

From the masculine name Leilfr, genitive Leilfs, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Leilf’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Leilfssto˛um

Leiksklar, Dal. (farm)

The plural of OIc. leikskli 'play-shed'; these were temporary dwellings for participants and spectators at a leikmt, or athletic meeting. The word is a compound of leikr 'play, game, sport' and skli 'a shieling: a hut or shed put up for temporary use'.
Locative Byname:

Leir, Borg. (river)

From OIc. leir 'clay, loam; mud' and 'a river'.
Locative Byname: at Leir

Leirho˛fn, ing. (farm)

From OIc. leir 'clay, loam; mud' and ho˛fn 'a harbor, a haven'.
Locative Byname: Leirho˛fn

Leirulkr, Mr. (brook)

From OIc. leira 'a muddy shore, a mud flat', genitive leiru, and lkr 'a rivulet, a brook'.
Locative Byname:

Leiruvgr, Kjs. (cove)
– – S.-Ml. (cove)

From OIc. leira 'a muddy shore, a mud flat', genitive leiru, and vgr 'a creek, a bay'.
Locative Byname:

Landisnes, Norway.

This is modern Lindesnes, whose oldest recorded name is OIc. Landi; this is the present participle of la 'to go; to pass; to be at an end'. Here the sense is probably 'the end (of the peninsula)'. To this was later added nes 'a ness, a headland'. I don’t entirely understand the construction: I would have expected Landanes, with Landi treated either as an adjective in the neuter nominative singular or as an nd-stem noun in the genitive singular. (NSL s.n. Lindesnes)
Locative Byname:

Lnakradalr, Hnv. (valley and fell)

From OIc. lnakr 'a flax field', genitive plural lnakra, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'flax fields’ dale'. Lnakr is a compound of ln 'flax; linen' and akr 'a field; a crop'.
Locative Byname:

Ljsavatn, ing. (farm)

From OIc. ljss 'light, bright', here in the neuter nominative singular of the weak declension, and vatn 'water, fresh water; a lake'.
Locative Byname: at Ljsavatni; fr Ljsavatni

Ljsavatnsskar, ing. (valley)

From the place-name Ljsavatn, genitive Ljsavatns, and OIc. skar 'a mountain pass; a notch'. The lake is at one end of the pass.
Locative Byname:

Ljtarstair, Rang. (farm)

From the feminine name Ljt, genitive Ljtar, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Ljt’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Ljtarsto˛um

Ljtlfsstair, Dal. (farm)

From the masculine name Ljtlfr, genitive Ljtlfs, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Ljtlf’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Ljtlfssto˛um

Lomundarfjo˛rr, N.-Ml. (fjord)

From the masculine name Lomundr, genitive Lomundar, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Lomund’s fjord'.
Locative Byname: Lomundarfiri

Lomundarhvammr, Skaft. (farm)

From the masculine name Lomundr, genitive Lomundar, and OIc. hvammr 'a grassy hollow or little vale': 'Lomund’s hollow'.
Locative Byname: Lomundarhvammi

Lft, Norway.

The old name of the island Vestvgya in the Lofoten archipelago, now applied to the island chain as a whole. The neighboring island of Flakstadya was called Vargft. Despite the missing inflectional -r, this is clearly from OIc. vargr 'a wolf' and ftr 'a foot', perhaps in reference to the way the coastline is cut up by fjords and inlets. It seems likely, therefore, that the first element of Lft is an otherwise unattested cognate of Old Swedish lo 'a lynx', making the name is 'lynx-foot', though other etymologies have been proposed. (NSL s.n. Lofoten)
Locative Byname:

Lmagnpslo˛nd, Skaft. (farm with associated lands)

From the farm-name Lmagnpr, genitive Lmagnps, and OIc. land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', here in the plural lo˛nd. Lmagnpr is from lmr 'a loon, an ember-goose', genitive plural lma, and gnpr 'a peak, an overhanging peak': 'loons’ peak'.
Locative Byname:

Ln (Skipaln), Eyfj. (farm)
–– Skaft. (inlet)

OIc. ln 'an inlet, a lagoon'. Ln in Eyjafjararssla is now Skipaln 'ships’ lagoon', from skip 'a ship', genitive plural skipa; I don’ know how old this name is.
Locative Byname: Lni, at Lni

Lnland, Snf.

From OIc. ln 'an inlet, a lagoon' and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country'. (Einar Arnrsson’s index lists the name as Lonsland), but this appears to be an error.)
Locative Byname:

Lnlo˛nd, Skaft.

From either the place-name Ln or OIc. ln 'an inlet, a lagoon' and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', here in the plural lo˛nd.
Locative Byname:

Lnsheir, Skaft. (heath)

From the place-name Ln, genitive Lns, and OIc. heir 'a heath, a moor': 'Ln’s heath'.
Locative Byname:

Lunansholt, Rang. (farm)

The second element is OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge'; the first is the genitive of lunan, the byname of the settler orsteinn lunan. It also appears as luna, and its meaning and origin are unknown.
Locative Byname: Lunansholti

Lundar, (?). (farm)

The plural of OIc. lundr 'a grove'.
Locative Byname: at Lundum

Lundarbrekka, ing. (farm)

From OIc. lundr 'a grove', genitive lundar, and brekka 'a slope'.
Locative Byname: at Lundarbrekku(m)

Lundr, Borg. (farm)
–– ing. (farm)

OIc. lundr 'a grove'.
Locative Byname: at Lundi

Lsa, Snf. (river)

Apparently OIc. lsa 'a gleam, shimmering light'.
Locative Byname:

Lkjarbotnar, Rang. (farm)

From OIc. lkr 'a rivulet, a brook', genitive lkjar, and botn 'the head of a bay, firth, lake, or valley', here in the plural botnar.
Locative Byname:

Lo˛nguhl, Eyfj.

From OIc. langr 'long', here in the feminine nominative singular of the weak declension, and hl 'a mountainside, a slope': 'long slope'.
Locative Byname: Lo˛nguhl

~M~

Mn, ing. (farm)

The second element is OIc. 'a river'; the first is probably from the masculine name Mni, genitive Mna, Mna 'Mni’s river' being elided to Mn. (A man named Mni is said to have lived there for several years.) It is possible, however, that the first element is from the etymologically identical OIc. mni 'moon', genitive mna, making the name 'Moon River'; however, mni is for the most part a poetic term, the usual word being tungl.
Locative Byname:

Mnafell (Mnrfell), ing. (farm)

The second element is OIc. fell 'an isolated hill'; the first is either the masculine name Mni, genitive mna, or the etymologically identical OIc. mni, genitive mna, a largely poetic term for the moon: 'Mni’s isolated hill' or 'Moon Hill' (more or less). In the variant Mnrfell, the first element is the genitive of Mn.
Locative Byname: Mnafelli, Mnrfell

Mnavk, Hnv. (farm)

From the masculine name Mni, genitive Mna, and OIc. vk 'an inlet, a small bay': 'Mni’s inlet'.
Locative Byname: Mnavk

Mnafa, Hnv.

From the masculine name Mni, genitive Mna, and OIc. fa 'a mound, a knoll': 'Mni’s mound or knoll'.
Locative Byname:

Mannafallsbrekka (Mannafallsbrekkur), Snf.

From OIc. mar 'a human being, a man', genitive plural manna, fall 'a fall; a death in battle', genitive singular falls, and brekka 'a slope': 'slope where men fell in battle'. The variant form contains the plural brekkur 'slopes'. Landnmabk says that four men fell there in a fight between Laugarbrekku-Einarr Sigmundar son and Ln-Einarr.
Locative Byname:

Marbli (Hanatn), Eyfj. (farm)

From OIc. marr 'sea', combining form mar-, and bli 'a farm, a dwelling; a den, a lair': 'sea-farm'. According to Landnmabk, it was originally called Hanatn, from the byname of Eyvindr hani, the original settler there: hana is the genitive of OIc. hani 'a cock', and tn is 'a hedged plot, an enclosure, a courtyard, a homestead; a home field, a home meadow', so it was 'Hani’s homestead, the Cock’s homestead'. Eyvindr was subsequently called tnhani.
Locative Byname: Hanatni

Markarfljt, Rang. (large river)

From OIc. mo˛rk 'a forest', genitive marker, and fljt 'a river' (with a connotation of 'fast-moving'): 'forest river' (literally 'forest’s river').
Locative Byname:

Msstair, rn. (farm)
–– Hnv. (farm)

From the masculine name Mr, genitive Ms, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Mr’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Mssto˛um

Mvahl, Snf. (farm)

From OIc. mr 'a sea mew, a sea gull', genitive plural mva, and hl 'a mountainside, a slope': 'sea gulls’ slope'.
Locative Byname: Mvahl

Mealfarssund, Denmark.

From the place-name Mealfar, genitive Mealfars, and OIc. sund 'a sound, a strait, a channel': 'Mealfar’s strait'. Mealfar is now Middelfart on the island of Funen (Danish Fyn), Melfar in the local dialect; it is first noted in 1231 as Mthlfar, from ODa. mthl 'middle' (OIc. meal- 'middle') and ODa., OIc. far 'a way, a passage; a crossing, a ferry'.
Locative Byname:

Mealfell, Kjs. (farm)
–– Skaft. (farm)

From OIc. meal- 'middle' and fell 'an isolated hill'.
Locative Byname: at Mealfelli, Mealfelli

Mealfellsstro˛nd (Fellsstro˛nd), Dal.

From OIc. meal- 'middle', fell 'an isolated hill', genitive fells, and stro˛nd 'strand, coast, shore'; Fellsstrnd is the modern name.
Locative Byname:

Meallo˛nd, Skaft. (region)

From OIc. meal- 'middle' and land 'land (as opposed to sea)', here in the plural lo˛nd: 'middle lands'.
Locative Byname:

Melahverfi, Borg. (region)

From OIc. melr 'a sand-bank, a gravel-bank, especially one overgrown with bent grass', genitive plural mela, and hverfi 'a cluster of farms'.
Locative Byname:

Melar, Borg. (farm)
–– Mr. (farm)
–– Strand. (farm)

The nominative plural of OIc. melr 'a sand-bank, a gravel-bank, especially one overgrown with bent grass'.
Locative Byname: Melum, at Melum, Mela-

Melrakkadalr, Borg. (valley)

From OIc. melrakki 'arctic fox', genitive (singular and plural) melrakka, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'arctic fox’s or foxes’ valley'. Melrakki is a compound of melr 'a sand-bank, a gravel-bank, especially one overgrown with bent grass' and rakki 'a dog'.
Locative Byname:

Melrakkanes, S.-Ml. (ness)

From OIc. melrakki 'arctic fox', genitive (singular and plural) melrakka, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'arctic fox’s or foxes’ point'. Melrakki is a compound of melr 'a sand-bank, a gravel-bank, especially one overgrown with bent grass' and rakki 'a dog'.
Locative Byname:

Merkigil, Eyfj.
–– Skag. (ravine)

From OIc. merki 'a boundary' and gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom'.
Locative Byname:

Merkrhraun, rn. (lava field)

From OIc. mo˛rk 'a forest', variant genitive merkr, and hraun 'a burnt-out lava field' (originally 'a rough place, a wilderness').
Locative Byname:

Merrhfi, Scotland.

This is the OIc. adaptation of OIr. Muireb 'Moray' or an unattested precursor *Muirthreb 'sea-settlement'. The name appears in a variety of forms, including among others Mrhfi, Mrfi, Mrvi, Merfi, and Mervi.
Locative Byname:

Miengi, rn. (farm)

From OIc. mi 'middle' and engi 'meadow, meadowland'.
Locative Byname: Miengi, at Miengi

Mifell, Borg. (farm)

From OIc. mi 'middle' and fell 'an isolated hill'.
Locative Byname: at Mifelli

Mifjo˛rr, Hnv. (fjord)

From OIc. mi 'middle' and fjo˛r 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'.
Locative Byname: Mifjarar-

Mihs, rn. (farm)

From OIc. mi 'middle' and hs 'a house', here in the identical plural, meaning 'the group of houses forming a farm'.
Locative Byname: at Mihsum

Mijo˛kull, Greenland. (glacier)

From OIc. mi 'middle' and jo˛kull 'a glacier'.
Locative Byname:

Miskli, Rang. (farm)

From OIc. mi 'middle' and skli 'a shieling: a hut or shed put up for temporary use'.
Locative Byname:

Mgandi, Eyfj.

OIc. mgandi 'pissing' (or possibly 'pisser'), the present participle of mga 'to piss'; this is the name of a brook or river.
Locative Byname:

Mikilsstair, Hnv. (farm)

From the byname OIc. mikill 'great, tall' of rr mikill vars son (genitive mikils), who settled there, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Tall’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Mikilssto˛um

Miklagarr, ing. (farm)
–– Tyrkland.

From OIc. mikill 'great, large' and garr 'an enclosure, a yard; a courtyard, a court; a house; a stronghold'; the one in Tyrkland 'the land of the Turks' is Constantinople. (One would have expected Mikligarr, with the weak nominative singular masculine inflection of the adjective to match the gender of garr.)
Locative Byname: Miklagari

Miklagil, Strand. (?)

From OIc. mikill 'great, large' and gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom'; mikla is the weak neuter singular inflection, matching the neuter noun gil.
Locative Byname:

Minakseyrr, Skaft.

From OIc. minak 'a dough made of flour and butter', genitive minaks, and eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea'. Minak is a borrowing of OIr. menadach 'gruel made of flour and water (or occasionally butter)'. Landnmabk explains the name as follows:

Inglfr tk ar land, er n heitir Inglfsho˛fi, en Hjo˛rleif rak vestr fyrir land, ok fekk hann vatnftt. tku rlarnir rsku at r at knoa saman mjo˛l ok smjo˛r ok ko˛lluu at orstltt. eir nefndu at minak. En er at var tilbit, kom regn mikit, ok tku eir vatn tjldum. En er minakit tk at mygla, ko˛stuu eir v fyrir bor, ok rak at land, ar sem n heitir Minakseyrr.

Inglf took land there that is now called Inglfshfi, but Hjrleif drifted west along the land and grew short of water. Then the Irish thralls formed a plan to knead together flour and butter, and they called that thirst-slaking. They named it minak. But when it was prepared, a great rain came, and they collected the water in tent-cloths. And when the minak began to mold, they cast it overboard, and it drifted ashore at the place that is now called Minakseyrr.

Locative Byname:

Mjsyndi, rn. (farm)

From OIc. mjr 'narrow' and a side-form of sund 'a sound, a strait, a channel; a defile'. (The name also appears as Mjsund.) It is said that the river jrs was once so narrow here that one could throw a stick across it, though it is now very wide here.
Locative Byname: fr Mjsyndi

Mjvadalr, Mr. (side valley)

From OIc. mjr 'narrow' and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'narrow valley'. (One would have expected Mjvidalr, with the weak nominative singular masculine inflection of the adjective to match the gender of dalr.)
Locative Byname:

Mjvadals, Skag. (river)

From another instance of the valley-name Mjvadalr, genitive Mjvadals, and OIc. 'a river'.
Locative Byname:

Mjvafjo˛rr, safj. (fjord)
–– S.-Ml. (fjord)

From OIc. mjr 'narrow' and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'narrow fjord'. (One would have expected Mjvifjo˛rr, with the weak nominative singular masculine inflection of the adjective to match the gender of fjo˛rr.)
Locative Byname:

Mjo˛la, Norway.

This appears to be modern Mely(a), a municipality (originally a parish) and an island in the county of Nordland. The OIc. name is recorded only in oblique cases, from which the nominative Mjo˛la is a natural inference; however, the original form is more likely to have been *Mjo˛lva, akin to OIc. mjo˛l 'flour, meal', perhaps here in the sense 'sand'. (NSL s.n. Mely(a))
Locative Byname: r Mjo˛lu

Mjo˛rs, Norway.

This is now Mjsa, the largest lake in Norway. The name is very old and is from PScand. *Mersō, whose etymology however is uncertain; it may be from PIE *mer- 'to shimmer, to shine', though other possibilities have been suggested.
Locative Byname:

Mberg, Hnv. (farm)

OIc. mberg 'tuff', compound of mr 'a moor, a heath, barren moorland; peat' and berg 'elevated rocky ground; a rock, a boulder; a cliff, a precipice'.
Locative Byname: at Mbergi

Mbergsbrekkur, Hnv. (slope)

From OIc. mberg 'tuff', genitive mbergs, and brekka 'a slope', here in the plural brekkur: 'slopes of tuff'.
Locative Byname:

Mlfsgnpr, Skaft. (peak)

From the masculine name Mlfr and OIc. gnpr 'a peak, an overhanging peak': 'Mlf’s peak'.
Locative Byname:

Meiarhvll, Rang. (farm)

From the feminine name Meir, genitive Meiar, and OIc. hvll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll': 'Meir’s knoll'. (The rare name Meir is contracted from Mheir, probably from an original *Mheir.)
Locative Byname: at Meiarhvli

Mgils, Kjs. (farm)

The last element is OIc. 'a river'. Mgils- is apparently the genitive of a compound, mgil, of mr 'a moor, a heath, a barren moorland; peat' and gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom'; it has been suggested that m- here refers to the color.
Locative Byname:

Mgilslkr, Hnv. (brook)

The last element is OIc. lkr 'a rivulet, a brook'. Mgils- is apparently the genitive of a compound, mgil, of mr 'a moor, a heath, a barren moorland; peat' and gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom'; it has been suggested that m- here refers to the color.
Locative Byname:

Moldatn, Norway.

Now Moldtua in Agdenes herad, Sr-Trndelag. The second element is OIc. tn 'a hedged plot, an enclosure, a courtyard, a homestead; a home field, a home meadow'. The first element is uncertain; the best suggestion seems to be that it is from an unrecorded name of an elevation, *Moldi, genitive Molda, related to OE molda 'the top or dome of the head'.' (NSL s.n. Moldtustranda)
Locative Byname:

Mr, Skag. (farm)

OIc. mr 'a moor, a heath, a barren moorland'.
Locative Byname: Mi, at Mi

Mosfell, rn. (farm)
–– Kjs. (farm)

From OIc. mos 'a bog, moorland; moss' and fell 'an isolated hill'.
Locative Byname: at Mosfelli; fr Mosfelli

Mostr, Norway.

Now the island of Moster; the etymology is unknown. (NSL s.n. Moster)
Locative Byname: Mostr

Mlafell, Dal. (fell)

From OIc. mli 'a projecting mountain, a jutting crag (between two fjords, valleys, or the like)', genitive mla, and fell 'an isolated hill'. (The name is now Mlafjall, with fjall 'a fell, a mountain' replacing fell.)
Locative Byname:

Mli, rn. (fell)
–– Dal. (farm)
–– (1) Kjs. (farm)
–– (2) Kjs. (farm)
–– S.-Ml. (fell)

OIc. mli 'a projecting mountain, a jutting crag (between two fjords, valleys, or the like)'.
Locative Byname: Mla, at Mla

Munaarnes, Mr. (farm)

From OIc. munar 'lust, sensual pleasure, pleasure, enjoyment, delight' (Ic. munaur 'luxury'), genitive munaar, and nes 'a ness, a headland': apparently 'pleasure’s ness'.
Locative Byname:

Mdalr, Skaft. (region)

From OIc. m 'a midge, a gnat' and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'midge valley'. The modern name is Mrdalur.
Locative Byname:

Mdals, Kjs. (river)

From the place-name Mdalr, genitive Mdals, and OIc. 'a river'. This Mdalr has the same etymology as the one in Skaftafellsssla: this is 'Midge Valley River'. (The valley is now called Midalur, however, as if it were 'middle valley'.)
Locative Byname:

Mrar, Mr. (region)
–– safj. (farm)
–– Skaft. (region)

OIc. mrr 'a bog, a swamp, a mire', here in the plural.
Locative Byname:

Myrk, Eyfj. (river and farm)

From OIc. myrkr 'dark, murky' and 'a river': 'dark river'.
Locative Byname:

Mrr, Bar. (?)

OIc. mrr 'a bog, a swamp, a mire'.
Locative Byname:

Mvatn, ing. (large lake)

From OIc. m 'a midge, a gnat' and vatn 'water, fresh water; a lake': 'midge lake'.
Locative Byname: at Mvatni

Mlifell, Skag. (fell and farm)

The second element is fell 'an isolated hill', and the first derives from OIc. mla 'to measure': 'measuring hill, measuring peak'. The place-name is found 12 times in Iceland; it was applied to peaks, often conical and easily recognized at a distance, that were used as reference points. In some cases they marked the midpoint of a particular travellers’ route; this one is probably of that type. In others they marked the middle of a series of peaks, a valley, a highland pasture, or the like; and in yet others they served as eyktamrk 'octant marks' showing where the sun would be at a certain time of day (e.g., noon) when seen from a particular vantage point. (More information on the connection between time and direction in Old Norse society can be found here.)
Locative Byname: at Mlifelli

Mlifells, Skag. (river)

From another instance of the place-name Mlifell, genitive Mlifells, and OIc. 'a river'. (In this case the reason for the name is uncertain.
Locative Byname:

Mlifellsdalr, Skag. (valley)

From another instance of the place-name Mlifell, genitive Mlifells, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale'.
Locative Byname:

Mlifellsgil, Mr. (ravine)

From the place-name Mlifell, genitive Mlifells, and OIc. gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom'.
Locative Byname:

Mrin, Norway.

Now Mre in Nord-Trndelag. The sources are inconsistent, and the OIc. place-name never appears in the nominative case, but it appears to have been Mrin, from an earlier *Mrvin whose second element is OIc. vin 'a meadow'. The first element is uncertain; it could be from mrr 'famous, glorious, illustrious', as this was a major pre-Christian (and later Christian) religious site, but mri 'boundary', attested in the compound landamri 'borderland, boundary', is also a possibility. (NSL s.n. Mre)
Locative Byname:

Mo˛rufell, Eyfj. (farm)

From OIc. mara 'madder', genitive mo˛ru, and fell 'an isolated hill': 'madder hill'.
Locative Byname: Mo˛rufelli

Mo˛ruvellir, Eyfj. (farm)
–– Kjs. (farm)

From OIc. mara 'madder', genitive mo˛ru, and vo˛llr 'a field', here in the plural vellir: 'madder field'.
Locative Byname: Mo˛ruvellum

Mo˛rk, rn.
–– Rang. (farm)

OIc. mo˛rk 'a forest'.
Locative Byname: Mo˛rk

~N~

Narfasker, Eyfj. (skerry)

From the masculine name Narfi, genitive Narfa, and OIc. sker 'a rock in the sea, a skerry': 'Narfi’s skerry'.
Locative Byname:

Nttfaravk, ing. (inlet)

From the masculine name Nttfari, genitive Nttfara, and OIc. vk 'an inlet, a small bay': 'Nttfari’s inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Naumdlafylki, Norway.

From OIc. naumdll 'of or from Naumudalr; one from Naumudalr', genitive plural Naumdla, and fylki 'district, county, shire (in Norway)': 'district of the people of Naumudalr'.
Locative Byname:

Naumudalr, Norway.

Now Naumdalen. From an unrecorded river-name *Nauma, genitive Naumu, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Nauma valley'. (NSL s.n. Namdalen)
Locative Byname: Naumudal, older Naumudali

Nautab, Skag. (farm)

From OIc. naut 'cattle, neat', genitive plural nauta, and b 'a farm, an estate': 'cattle farm'.
Locative Byname:

Nes, (1) Gullbr. (farm)
–– (2) Gullbr. (ness)
–– S.-Ml. (ness and farm)

OIc. nes 'a ness, a headland' or the identical plural. The dative case, which is the most common form, distinguishes between singular (nesi) and plural (nesjum), but the sources sometimes disagree. Nesinu, the dative of nesin 'the ness', with postposed definite article, also occurs, implying the possibility of a place-name Nesin. The byname Nesja- if from the plural.
Locative Byname: Nesi; Nesja-

Neshraun, Snf. (lava field)

From OIc. nes 'a ness, a headland' and hraun 'a burnt-out lava field'.
Locative Byname:

Njarey, Norway.

Now Nry(a) in Nord-Trndelag. The second element is OIc. ey 'an island'; the first is probably the root of the god-name Njo˛rr. (NSL s.n. Nry(a))
Locative Byname:

Njarvk, N.-Ml. (inlet and farm)

The second element is OIc. vk 'an inlet, a small bay'; the first is probably the root of the god-name Njo˛rr.
Locative Byname:

Norfjo˛rr, S.-Ml. (fjord)

From OIc. norr 'the north' and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'north fjord'.
Locative Byname:

Norlendingafjrungr

At an early date Iceland was divided into four political divisions, each called a fjrungr 'a fourth, a quarter'. One of these was Norrland '(the) Northland', and its inhabitants were the Norlendingar 'Northlanders', genitive Norlenginga; the Norlendingafjrungr is therefore the 'quarter of the Northlanders'. (The other quarters are the Austrfiringafjrungr, the Vestfiringafjrungr, and the Sunnlendingafjrungr.)
Locative Byname:

Normand, i.e., Normandy.

The OIc. basis is Normar 'a Northman, esp. a Norwegian', from norr 'the north' and mar 'a man', but the details are a bit complicated. OIc. mar is from an earlier mannr (still to be seen in a half dozen early poems). In OEScand., however, the change of nnr to r was less consistently carried out and generally reversed; OSwe., for example, has maer, man, mandr, and mand, and there are Danish runic inscriptions in which the word appears as mantr and matr (also for mantr: omission of runic n before a consonant was common), representing non-runic mandr. Finally, modern Danish has mand 'man'. It therefore appears that Normand developed from an OEScand. form of Normar. The final - seems to be from the Latin place-name suffix -ia.
Locative Byname:

Normrr, Norway.

Now the Nordmre district in Mre og Romsdal. The first element is from OIc. norr 'the north'; the second is from mrr 'land'. This word, found only in poetry, is quite possibly related to marr 'sea', with an original sense 'land by the sea' or 'wetland, bogland'. (NSL s.nn. Nordmre, Mre)
Locative Byname:

Norr, Mr. (river)
–– Skag. (river)

From OIc. norr 'the north' and 'a river': 'north river'. These are two different rivers, not a single river that extends into both counties.
Locative Byname:

Norrrdalr, Mr. (valley)
–– Skag. (valley)

From the place-name Norr, genitive Norrr, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'valley of the Norr (North River)'.
Locative Byname:

Norrlo˛nd

From OIc. norr 'the north' and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', here in the plural lo˛nd: '(the) northlands', usually meaning the lands peopled by Northmen, but sometimes referring to all of Europe.
Locative Byname:

Nortunga, Mr. (region and farm)

From OIc. norr 'the north' and tunga 'a tongue of land': 'north tongue'.
Locative Byname:

Nor(v)egr, Nregr, i.e., Norway.

Although there have been a few dissenters, communis opinio is that the name is from an unattested *Norvegr '(the) northern way', from OIc. norr 'the north' and vegr 'a way, a road'. A similar development is actually attested for austrvegr '(the) eastern way'. In early sources it appears in the plural, austrvegir, and may denote any lands east of Scandinavia. Later it appears in the singular, and its denotation is increasingly restricted, first to Old Rus and other lands along the eastern route to Byzantium (but excluding Byzantium itself), and eventually to the South and East Baltic lands. The very early loss of the is a bit surprising, but no other hypothesis is nearly as well-supported.
Locative Byname:

Nkomi, Skaft. (river)

Apparently from OIc. nr 'new' and koma 'to come', but the significance is unknown. Indeed, it is not even known exactly where or what Nkomi was; it may have been a branch of the Skapt.
Locative Byname:

~O~

Oddgeirshlar, rn. (farm)

From the masculine name Oddgeirr, genitive Oddgeirs, and OIc. hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll', here in the plural hlar.
Locative Byname: Oddgeirshlum

Oddi, Rang. (farm)
–– inn litli, Rang. (region)

OIc. oddi 'a triangle, a point or tongue of land'; inn litla is 'the little, the small'.
Locative Byname: Odda

Oddsss, Hnv.: see ss.

deila, ing. (fell)

Apparently the same as Ic. deila 'undivided land'. (Not the mountain now known as deila.)
Locative Byname:

feigsfjo˛rr, Strand. (fjord)

From the masculine name feigr, genitive feigs, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'feig’s inlet'. (The name feigr is rather interesting in its own right: it is literally 'destined for a long life, from the negative prefix - and feigr 'destined to die, fey'. An English unfey would be an exact cognate.)
Locative Byname:

feigsstair, rn. (farm)

From the masculine name feigr, genitive feigs, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'feig’s stead(s)'. (For more on the name feigr see feigsfjo˛rr.)
Locative Byname:

Ofrustair, Norway.

Now Obrestad in Rogaland. The second element is OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair. The first should probably be Opru- or, more likely, O˛pru-, the genitive of a lost river-name *Opra or O˛pra, respectively. Some early forms do in fact have p rather than f, and the later forms clearly point in this direction. (NSL s.n. Obrestad)
Locative Byname: Ofrusto˛um

fra, safj. (fell)
–– Strand. (fell)

OIc. fra 'an impassable place'.
Locative Byname:

lafsdalr, Dal. (farm)

From the masculine name lafr, genitive lafs, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'laf’s valley'.
Locative Byname: lafsdal, older lafsdali

lafsfjo˛rr, Eyfj. (fjord)

From the masculine name lafr, genitive lafs, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'laf’s fjord'.
Locative Byname:

lafsvellir, rn. (farm)

From the masculine name lafr, genitive lafs, and OIc. vo˛llr 'a field', here in the plural vellir: 'laf’s fields'.
Locative Byname: lafsvo˛llum

lafsvkSnf. (inlet)

laf’s inlet, from the masculine name lafr, genitive lafs, and OIc. vk 'an inlet, a small bay'.
Locative Byname:

leifsborg (leifsbjo˛rg), Skaft.

From the masculine name leifr, genitive leifs, and OIc. borg 'an isolated hill' or bjo˛rg 'precipices, especially by the sea' (actually the plural of bjarg 'a boulder, a (large) rock').
Locative Byname:

Orkneyjar, i.e., Orkney, the Orkney Islands.

On the face of it from OIc. orkn 'a kind of seal' and ey 'an island', here in the plural eyjar: 'seal islands'. However, this is a Norse adaptation of a much older name: the Roman geographer Mela knew the islands as the Orcades in the first century CE. The original name is probably akin to OIr. orc, a poetic term for a young pig, perhaps a tribal name 'the (young) boars' or the like.
Locative Byname:

Orms (Ormars), S.-Ml. (river)
–– (Ormars), N.-Ml. (river)

From the masculine name Ormr, genitive Orms, or Ormarr, genitive Ormars, and OIc. 'a river': 'Orm’s or Ormar’s river'.
Locative Byname:

Ormsdalr, Hnv. (side valley)

From the masculine name Ormr, genitive Orms, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Orm’s valley'.
Locative Byname:

Ormsstair, Vestmannaeyjar. (farm)

From the masculine name Ormr, genitive Orms, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Orm’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Ormssto˛um

Orrastair, Dal. (farm)

From orri 'a blackcock or heathcock, the male of the black grouse', genitive orra, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'blackcock’s stead(s)'. It is likely, however, that the place takes its name not directly from the bird, but from the byname of an early owner: stair were most often named after people, not infrequently using the byname rather than the forename, and orri was a fairly common byname. Indeed, Gsla saga Srssonar mentions another Orrastair where a man named orgeirr orri lived. (One version incorrectly has Arastair, as if the first element were from the masculine name Ari, genitive Ara.)
Locative Byname: Orrasto˛um

Orrostudalr, rn. (valley)

From OIc. orrosta 'a battle', genitive orrostu, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'battle valley'. Landnmabk describes a small battle that took place there.
Locative Byname:

sar (ss, Unass), N.-Ml. (harbor)

OIc. ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake', here in the plural sar. The place-name is also found in the singular and as Unass 'Uni’s river-mouth', where Una is the genitive of the masculine name Uni.
Locative Byname:

sfjo˛ll, N.-Ml. (fells)

From the root of OIc. ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake' and fjall 'a fell, a mountain', here in the plural fjo˛ll.
Locative Byname:

smi, safj. (brook)

OIc. smi 'disgrace'. It is described as a lkr 'brook' by a meadow, but the exact location seems to be unknown. It has been suggested that the name might indicate that the brook was liable to flood in the spring and damage the neighboring fields.
Locative Byname:

ss, Hnv. (farm)
–– S.-Ml.
–– ing. (farm)

OIc. ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake'.
Locative Byname: at si; fr si

Osta, Norway.

This one is a complete mystery to me.
Locative Byname: r Ostu

svfslkr, Kjs. (brook)

From the masculine name svifr, genitive svifs, and OIc. lkr 'a rivulet, a brook': 'svif’s brook'.
Locative Byname:

~P~

Papey, Skaft. (island)

From OIc. papi 'an Irish monk or hermit', plural papar, and ey 'an island'; presumably papa ey 'island of the papar' was contracted to Papey. Landnmabk says that Irish monks were found here and at Papli when the Norse first arrived in Iceland, but numerous attempts have turned up no archaeological evidence of their presence.
Locative Byname:

Papli, Skaft. (region)

Generally taken to be syncopated from an earlier *Papabli, from OIc. papi 'an Irish monk or hermit', genitive plural papa, and bli 'a farm; a settlement': 'settlement of papar, Irish monks'. The original form may, however, have been *Papbli, which would more easily give rise to the attested forms. There is some indication that it was actually the name of a district: places named Breiablstar and Hof are described as lying within it. Landnmabk says that Irish monks were found here and at Papey when the Norse first arrived in Iceland, but numerous attempts have turned up no archaeological evidence of their presence.
Locative Byname:

Patreksfjo˛rr. (fjord)

From the masculine name Patrekr, genitive Patreks, and OIc. fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'Patrek’s fjord'. Patrekr is a borrowing of OIr. Ptraic, itself from Latin Patricius. According to Landnmabk, the name was bestowed by one of the original settlers, rlygr inn gamli Hrapps son in honor of his foster-father, 'the holy bishop Patrek in the Hebrides':

eir rlygr ltu haf ok fengu tivist hara ok vissu eigi, hvar eir fru. ht rlygr Patrek biskup til landto˛ku sr, at hann skyldi af hans nafni gefa o˛rnefni, ar sem hann tki land. eir vru aan fr litla hr ti, r eir s land, ok vru komnir vestr um landit. eir tku ar, sem heitir rlygsho˛fn, en fjo˛rinn inn fr ko˛lluu eir Patreksfjo˛r.

rlygr and his men put out to sea and suffered a hard voyage and did not know where they were going. Then rlygr invoked bishop Patrek for a landing-place, vowing that he would give his [Patrek’s] name to wherever he reached land. After that they were at sea only a little while before they saw land, and had come west around the land. They landed at the place called rlygsho˛fn 'rlyg’s harbor', and they called the fjord that runs in from there Patreksfjo˛rr.

Locative Byname:

Pettlandsfjo˛rr, Scotland.

This is the Pentland Firth separating Orkney (Orkneyjar) from Caithness (Katanes). Pettlands is the genitive of Pettland 'land of the Picts', from OIc. Pettr 'a Pict'. Pettr is a borrowing of OE Peht 'a Pict', which in turn is a borrowing of Latin Pictī.
Locative Byname:

~R~

Rang, N-Ml. (river)
–– eystri, Rang. (river)
–– ytri, Rang. (river)

From OIc. rangr 'wrong' (earlier vrangr) and 'a river'; the sense of the name is probably something like 'crooked river, river with many bends'. Eystr is 'more eastern', and ytri is 'outer'.
Locative Byname:

Rangaarvara Kjalvegi. (cairn)

From the masculine name Ro˛ngur, genitive Rangaar, and OIc. vara 'a pile of stones, a cairn': 'Ro˛ngu’s cairn', after the thrall who is said to have built it. For the Kjalvegr see Kjo˛lr.
Locative Byname:

Rangrss, Rang. (river-mouth)

From the river-name Rang, genitive Rangr, and OIc. ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake': 'mouth of the Rang river'.
Locative Byname:

Rangrvellir inir eystri.
–– inir ytri.

From the river-name Rang, genitive Rangr, and OIc. vo˛llr 'a field', here in the plural vellir; inir eystri and inir ytri are 'the more eastern' and 'the outer', respectively.
Locative Byname:

Raptalkr, Skaft. (river)

From OIc. raptr 'a log, especially the rafters of a roof', genitive plural rapta, and lkr 'a rivulet, a brook'; a name applied to the slower-moving upper reaches of the Almannafljt; the name is also given as Toptalkr.
Locative Byname:

Rau, rn. (river)
–– (Raualkr), Rang. (river or brook)

From OIc. raur 'red' and 'a river': 'red river'. The one in Rang. is called Raualkr in some versions.
Locative Byname:

Rauabjarnarstair, Mr. (farm)

From the masculine name Raua-Bjo˛rn, genitive Raua-Bjarnar, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Raua-Bjo˛rn’s stead(s)'. The preposed byname Raua- is not from raur 'red'; it's the genitive of the related word raui 'red iron ore'. According to Landnmabk, Raua-Bjo˛rn got his byname because he was the first to smelt iron in Iceland.
Locative Byname: at Rauabjarnarsto˛um

Rauafell it eystra, Rang. (farm)

From OIc. raur 'red' and fell 'an isolated hill': 'red hill'. It eystra is 'the more eastern'. The place is also called Raufarfell it eystra; here raufar appears to be the genitive of rauf 'a rift or hole', making it 'hill with a rift in it'.
Locative Byname:

Rauagnpr, ing. (promontory)

From OIc. raur 'red' and gnpr 'a peak, an overhanging peak': 'red peak'. (On purely grammatical grounds one would expect Rauignpr; CV s.v. raur gives this form, but it is not supported by the sources.)
Locative Byname:

Raualkr, Borg. (brook)
–– Rang. (brook)
–– Skaft. (farm)

From OIc. raur 'red' and lkr 'a rivulet, a brook': 'red brook'. The one in Rang. is also called Rau in some versions. (On purely grammatical grounds one would expect Rauilkr; CV s.n. raur gives this form, but it is not supported by the sources.)
Locative Byname: at Raualk

Rauamelr inn ytri, Snf. (farm)

From OIc. raur 'red' and melr 'a sand-bank, a gravel-bank, especially one overgrown with bent grass': 'red sand'. (On purely grammatical grounds one would expect Rauimelr; CV s.n. raur gives this form, but it is not supported by the sources or the modern name.) Inn ytri is 'the outer'.
Locative Byname: at Rauamel inum ytra, at ytra Rauamel, at Rauamel

Rauamelslo˛nd, Snf.

From the place-name Rauamelr, genitive Rauamels, and OIc. land 'land (as opposed to sea)', here in the plural lo˛nd: 'lands associated with Rauamelr'.
Locative Byname:

Rauasandr, Bar. (district)

From OIc. raur 'red' and sandr 'sand; the seashore': 'red sand'. (On purely grammatical grounds one would expect Rauisandr; CV s.n. raur gives this form, but it is not supported by the sources or the modern name, and the sand is a distinctive reddish-orange color.) It appears to be an amusing coincidence that the original settler here was rmr inn raui orbjarnar son 'rmr the Red'.
Locative Byname:

Rauaskria, ing. (farm)

From OIc. raur 'red' and skria 'a landslip, an avalanche'.
Locative Byname: r Rauaskriu

Rauaskriulo˛nd.

From the place-name Rauaskria, genitive Rauaskriu, and OIc. land 'land (as opposed to sea)', here in the plural lo˛nd: 'lands associated with Rauaskria'.
Locative Byname:

Rauaskriur, S.-Ml. (fell)

From OIc. raur 'red' and skria 'a landslip, an avalanche', here in the plural skriur.
Locative Byname:

Raukollsstair, Snf. (farm)

From OIc. raur 'red', kollr 'top, summit', genitive kolls, and star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'red-summit stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Raukollssto˛um

Rausgil, Borg. (ravine and farm)

From the masculine name Raur, genitive Raus, and OIc. gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom': 'Rau’s gully'.
Locative Byname:

Raufarfell it eystra: see Rauafell it eystra.

Raufarnes, Mr. (ness)

From OIc. rauf 'a rift or hole', genitive raufar, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'headland with a rift'.
Locative Byname:

Raumsdalr, Norway.

Now Romsdal. The second element is OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale'; the first is probably connected with the river-name Rauma, of unknown etymology. On account of the -s- in Raums-, however, it cannot derive directly from the river-name: this is not simply 'valley of the Rauma'. It has been suggested that the river gave its name to the fjord in the form *Raumr, genitive Raums, and that the valley was then named after the fjord. (NSL s.n. Romsdal)
Locative Byname:

Raumsdlafylki, Norway.

From OIc. raumsdll 'of or from Raumsdalr; one from Raumsdalr', genitive plural Raumsdla, and fylki 'district, county, shire (in Norway)': 'district of the people of Raumsdalr'.
Locative Byname:

Refsstair, N.-Ml. (farm)

From the masculine name Refr, genitive Refs, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair.
Locative Byname: Refssto˛um

Reistar, Eyfj. (river and farm)

The second element is OIc. 'a river'; the first is probably from the poetic term reistr 'a snake', genitive reistar, the idea being 'crooked river'.
Locative Byname:

Reistargnpr, ing. (promontory)

The second element is OIc. gnpr 'a peak, an overhanging peak'. On semantic grounds the first is unlikely to be from reistr 'a snake', but from the feminine compound uppreist 'an uprising, a rebellion' we can infer a feminine noun reist, genitive reistar, related to the verb rsa 'to rise' and meaning something like 'a rising; something that has risen'. It may be that the peak was originally named simply Reist, the more familiar gnpr being added later by way of explanation. See Svavar Sigmundsson, Eyjafiri er in Reistar og br kenndur vi hana. Af hverju dregur in nafn sitt? (‘In Eyjafjrdur there is the river Reistar and the farm named after it. From what does the river derive its name?’).
Locative Byname:

Reyarfell, Borg. (fell)

From OIc. reyr 'a rorqual'; arctic char', genitive reyar, and fell 'an isolated hill'. Since it lies near the river Hvt, reyar probably refers to the fish, not the whale.
Locative Byname: at Reyarfelli

Reyarfjall, S.-Ml. (fell)

From OIc. reyr 'a rorqual; arctic char', genitive reyar, and fjall 'a fell, a mountain': 'rorqual(’s) fell'. From the south and southeast it bears a considerable resemblance to a whale.
Locative Byname:

Reyarfjo˛rr, S.-Ml. (fjord)

From OIc. reyr 'a rorqual; arctic char', genitive reyar, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'. According to Tryggvi Gslason, Norsk rnefni slandi og torr rnefni Eyjafiri (‘Norwegian place-names in Iceland and obscure place-names in Eyjafjrr’), the fjord takes its name from Reyarfjall to its south.
Locative Byname:

Reyarmli, rn. (fell)

From OIc. reyr 'a rorqual; arctic char', genitive reyar, and mli 'a projecting mountain, a jutting crag (between two fjords, valleys, or the like)': 'char(’s) crag'. According to Landnmabk, Ketilbjo˛rn Ketils son and his companions named it after the char that they took from the river there.
Locative Byname:

Reyarvatn, Rang. (small lake)

From OIc. reyr 'a rorqual; arctic char', genitive reyar, and vatn 'water, fresh water; a lake': 'char(’s) lake'.
Locative Byname:

Reykir inir efri (Kpareykir), Borg.
–– Hnv. (farm)

The plural of OIc. reykr 'smoke, steam', referring to the hot springs in the area; inir efri is 'the upper'. Kpareykir is the modern name; the added element is apparently the genitive plural of kpr 'a seal pup, a young seal'.
Locative Byname: at Reykjum (inum efrum)

Reykja, Eyfj. (river)

From OIc. reykr 'smoke, steam', genitive plural reykja, and 'a river'; the sense is 'river associated with hot springs'.
Locative Byname:

Reykjadalr (inn) nyrri, Borg. (valley)
–– (inn) syri, Borg. (valley)
–– ing.

From OIc. reykr 'smoke, steam', genitive plural reykja, and dalr 'a valley, a dale'; the sense is 'valley with hot springs'. (Inn) nyrri and (inn) syri are '(the) more northerly' and '(the) more southerly', respectively.
Locative Byname:

Reykjadals, Borg. (river)

From the place-name Reykjadalr, genitive Reykjadals, and OIc. 'a river', the river that flows through Reykjadalr.
Locative Byname:

Reykjahl, ing. (farm)

From OIc. reykr 'smoke, steam', genitive plural reykja, and hl 'a mountainside, a slope': a slope with hot springs.
Locative Byname: Reykjahl

Reykjahlar, Bar. (farm)

From OIc. reykr 'smoke, steam', genitive plural reykja, and hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll', here in the plural hlar: knolls with hot springs. The name also occurs as Hlar.
Locative Byname: Reykjahlum, at Reykjahlum

Reykjaholt, Borg. (farm)

From OIc. reykr 'smoke, steam', genitive plural reykja, and holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge': probably a ridge with hot springs.
Locative Byname: Reykjaholti

Reykjanes, Bar. (ness)
–– Gullbr. (ness)

From OIc. reykr 'smoke, steam', genitive plural reykja, and nes 'a ness, a headland': a headland with hot springs.
Locative Byname: af Reykjanesi

Reykjarfjo˛rr, safj. (fjord)

From OIc. reykr 'smoke, steam', genitive singular reykjaf, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': a fjord with a hot spring.
Locative Byname:

Reykjarhll, Skag. (hill and farm)

From OIc. reykr 'smoke, steam', genitive singular reykjar, and hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll': a knoll with a hot spring.
Locative Byname:

Reykjavellir (vi Kjalveg). (plain)

From OIc. reykr 'smoke, steam', genitive plural reykja, and vo˛llr 'a field', here in the plural vellir: fields with hot springs. The descriptive phrase vi 'by Kjalvegr' is an editorial addition. (The Kjalvegr 'keel-way' was an old north-south route through the Icelandic Highlands.)
Locative Byname:

Reykjarvk, Gullbr.

From OIc. reykr 'smoke, steam', genitive singular reykjar, and vk 'an inlet, a small bay': an inlet with a hot spring. This is now Reykjavk, the Icelandic capital, with the genitive plural reykja.
Locative Byname: Reykjarvk

Reynir, Borg.
–– Skaft. (farm)

OIc. reynir 'a rowan tree'.
Locative Byname: at Reyni; Reyni-, Reynis-

Reynisnes, ing. (ness)

From OIc. reynir 'a rowan tree', genitive reynis, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'rowan(’s) ness'.
Locative Byname:

Reyrvo˛llr, Norway.

The second element is OIc. vo˛llr 'a field'; the first is either from reyrr 'reed' or from reyrr 'a heap of stones, a cairn'. I’ve not been able to identify the place.
Locative Byname: Reyrvelli

Roreksgil: see Hrreksgil.

Rogaland, Norway.

This is still the name of the region. The second element is OIc. land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country', and the first is an old genitive of the (plural) folk-name Rygir: 'land of the Rygir'. Rygir is apparently the same as the folk-name Rugii mentioned by Tacitus in the first century CE, though the actual historical connection between the two peoples is unknown. The name is from PGmc. *rugi- 'rye'. (NSL s.n. Rogaland)
Locative Byname: af Rogalandi

Rma.

Rome.
Locative Byname:

Ros, Scotland.

Ross in Scotland. The name is from OIr. ros 'a wood', in some dialects also 'a promontory'.
Locative Byname:

Rosmhvalanes, Gullbr.

From OIc. rosmhvalr 'a walrus', genitive plural rosmhvala, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'walrus’ ness'.
Locative Byname:

Rykinsvk, Norway.

Now Rykenvik; an older form of the name, found at least as late as 1912, is Rkenvik(en). The second element is OIc. vk 'an inlet, a small bay'. The first is probably from the genitive Rykins of an old farm-name Rykin, contracted from an unattested compound *Hraukvin of OIc. hraukr 'a cone-shaped heap or pile' (as in torfhraukr 'a peat-stack') and vin 'a meadow'. The spelling without initial h probably reflects the ONorw. pronunciation when the sources were written down. (NSL s.n. Ryken)
Locative Byname:

Rytagnpr, saf. (promontory)

From OIc. rytr 'a seagull', genitive plural ryta, and gnpr 'a peak, an overhanging peak': 'gulls’ peak'.
Locative Byname:

Ro˛nd, Norway.

Now Randsfjorden. OIc. ro˛nd 'a rim, a border; a stripe', probably referring to the long, narrow shape of the lake. (NSL s.n. Randsfjorden)
Locative Byname:

~S~

Salteyrarss, Snf. (harbor)

From OIc. salt 'salt', eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea', genitive eyrar, and ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake': 'salt-spit(’s) inlet' or the like.
Locative Byname:

Sand, Mr. (river)

From OIc. sandr 'sand, stretch of sandy ground' and 'a river': 'sand river'.
Locative Byname:

Sandbrekka, Snf. (precipice)

From OIc. sandr 'sand, stretch of sandy ground' and brekka 'a slope': 'sand slope'.
Locative Byname:

Sanddalr, Mr. (side valley)

From OIc. sandr 'sand, stretch of sandy ground' and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'sand valley'.
Locative Byname:

Sandeyrar, safj. (river)

From OIc. sandr 'sand, stretch of sandy ground', eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea', genitive eyrar, and 'a river': 'sand-bank(’s) river' or the like.
Locative Byname:

Sandfell, Skaft. (farm)

From OIc. sandr 'sand, stretch of sandy ground' and fell 'an isolated hill': 'sand hill'.
Locative Byname: at Sandfelli

Sandgil, Rang. (farm)

From OIc. sandr 'sand, stretch of sandy ground' and gil 'a ravine or gully with a stream at the bottom': 'sand gully'.
Locative Byname: at Sandgili, Sandgili; fr Sandgili

Sandhlaferja, Rang. (ferry crossing)

From OIc. sandr 'sand, stretch of sandy ground', hll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll', genitive plural hla, and ferja 'a ferry': 'sand-hills’ ferry crossing'.
Locative Byname:

Sandlkr, rn. (brook)

From OIc. sandr 'sand, stretch of sandy ground' and lkr 'a rivulet, a brook': 'sand brook'.
Locative Byname:

Sandnes, Norway.

From OIc. sandr 'sand, a stretch of sandy ground' and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'sand ness'. This was a farm on the island of Alo˛st; I’ve not been able to determine whether it still exists. In Ch. 7 of Egils saga Skallagrmssonar its name is given as Sandnesi 'at Sandnes'.
Locative Byname: Sandnesi

Sandvk, Kjs. (inlet)
–– N.-Ml. (inlet)
–– S.-Ml. (inlet)

From OIc. sandr 'sand, a stretch of sandy ground' and vk 'an inlet, a small bay': 'sand inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Sau, Skag. (river and farm)

From OIc. saur 'a sheep' and 'a river': 'sheep river'.
Locative Byname:

Sauadalr, Hnv.

From OIc. saur 'a sheep', genitive plural saua, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'sheep’s valley'.
Locative Byname:

Sauafellslo˛nd, Dal. (farm and associated lands)

From OIc. saur 'a sheep', genitive plural saua, fell 'an isolated hill', genitive fells, and land 'land (as opposed to sea)', here in the plural lo˛nd: literally 'sheep’s hill’s lands', but in fact the lands associated with the farm Sauafell.
Locative Byname:

Sauanes, ing. (farm)

From OIc. saur 'a sheep', genitive plural saua, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'sheep’s ness'.
Locative Byname:

Saurbr, Borg. (farm)
–– Dal. (farm)
–– Eyfj. (farm)

From OIc. saurr 'mud, mire; dirt, excrement' and br 'a farmhouse, a farmstead': 'mud farmstead'. Landnmabk says that the one in Dal. was so called v at ar var mrlent mjo˛k 'because it was very boggy there'.
Locative Byname: Saurb

Saxahvll, Snf. (farm)

From the masculine name Saxi, genitive Saxa, and OIc. hvll 'a hill, a hillock, a knoll': 'Saxi’s knoll'.
Locative Byname: at Saxahvli

Saxland.

From OIc. Saxar 'Saxons' and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country': 'Saxon-land, land of the Saxons', more or less Germany.
Locative Byname:

Selaeyrr, Borg. (spit)

From OIc. selr 'a seal', genitive plural sela, and eyrr 'a sandbank, a gravel-bank; a spit of land running into the sea': 'seals’ bank'.
Locative Byname:

Selaln, Snf. (inlet)

From OIc. selr 'a seal', genitive plural sela, and ln 'an inlet, a lagoon': 'seals’ inlet'.
Locative Byname:

Selrdalr, N.-Ml. (valley)
–– Strand. (valley)

From OIc. selr 'a seal', 'a river', genitive r, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'seal-river(’s) valley'.
Locative Byname:

Selasund, Dal. (strait)

From OIc. selr 'a seal', genitive plural sela, and sund 'a sound, a strait, a channel': 'seals’ strait'. The name also occurs as Seljasund; selja is the genitive plural of sel 'a shed on a mountain pasture where milk cows are kept in summer'.
Locative Byname:

Selfors, rn. (farm)

From OIc. selr 'a seal' and fors 'a waterfall': 'seal fall'.
Locative Byname: at Selforsi

Seljalands, Rang. (river)

From OIc. sel 'a shed on a mountain pasture where milk cows are kept in summer', genitive plural selja, land 'land (as opposed to sea)', genitive singular lands, and 'a river': literally 'seals’ land’ river', but probably in fact 'river by the farm Seljaland'.
Locative Byname:

Seljalandsmli, Rang. (ridge)

From OIc. sel 'a shed on a mountain pasture where milk cows are kept in summer', genitive plural selja, land 'land (as opposed to sea)', genitive singular lands, and mli 'a projecting mountain, a jutting crag (between two fjords, valleys, or the like)': literally something like 'seals’ land’ ridge'.
Locative Byname:

Seljasund: see Selasund.

Selslkr, rn. (brook)

From OIc. selr 'a seal', genitive singular sels, and lkr 'a rivulet, a brook': 'seal’s brook'.
Locative Byname:

Seltjarnarnes, Gullbr. (ness)

From OIc. selr 'a seal', tjo˛rn 'a tarn, a small lake; a pool', genitive tjarnar, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'seal-tarn’s ness'.
Locative Byname: Seltjarnarnesi

Selvgr, rn. (cove)

From OIc. selr 'a seal' and vgr 'a creek, a bay': 'seal bay'.
Locative Byname:

Seyarfjo˛rr: see Seyisfjo˛rr

Seyisfjo˛rr, N.-Ml. (fjord)
–– safj. (fjord)

From OIc. seyir 'a cooking-fire', genitive singular seyis, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'cook-fire(’s) fjord'. The one in N.-Ml. also appears as Seyarfjo˛rr, with the nominative plural seyar; this violates the normal rules for constructing such compounds and should probably be considered an error. (*Seyafjo˛rr, however, with the genitive plural, should in principle be possible.)
Locative Byname: Seyisfiri

Sa, Skaft. (district)

OIc. sa 'a side; a coast'; a coastal district.
Locative Byname: Su; af Su; Su-

Siglufjo˛fr, Eyfj. (fjord)
–– Greenland. (fjord)

On the face of it from OIc. sigla 'a mast', genitive siglu, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet', hence 'mast’s fjord', but the actual etymology is somewhat doubtful.
Locative Byname:

Siglunes, Eyfj. (ness and farm)

On the face of it from OIc. sigla 'a mast', genitive siglu, and nes 'a ness, a headland', hence 'mast’s ness', but the actual etymology is somewhat doubtful.
Locative Byname: Siglunesi

Sigluvk, ing. (farm)

On the face of it from OIc. sigla 'a mast', genitive siglu, and vk 'an inlet, a small bay', hence 'mast’s inlet', but the actual etymology is somewhat doubtful.
Locative Byname: Sigluvk

Sigmundarakr, Eyfj. (field)

From the masculine name Sigmundr, genitive Sigmundar, and OIc. akr 'arable land, a field': 'Sigmund’s field'. Also called Vitazgjafi.
Locative Byname:

Sigmundarnes, Mr. (ness)

From the masculine name Sigmundr, genitive Sigmundar, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'Sigmund’s ness'. It is said to have been named after a leysingi 'freedman' of Skallagrmr Kveldlfs son.
Locative Byname:

Sigmundarstair: see Stafngrmsstair.

Signjarbrur (Signjarbir), Norway.

From the feminine name Sign, genitive Signjar, and OIc. brur 'a spring; a well': 'Sign’s spring'. (Brur is the same word as the more familiar brunnr. In OIc. the sequence nnr normally developed into r; for example, an early nominative singular mannr 'a man' became the familiar mar, and there are just a handful of examples of mannr in early poetry. Similarly, the normal development of brunnr was to brur, but in this case the older brunnr was restored on the model of the oblique cases in brunn-.) The name also appears as Signjarbir, in which the second element is the plural of b 'a temporary dwelling; a booth': 'Sign*’s booths'.
Locative Byname:

Signjarstair, Borg. (farm)

From the feminine name Sign, genitive Signjar, and OIc. star, here in the plural stair: 'Sign’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname:

Silfrastaahl, Skag. (precipice)

From a place-name Silfrastair, genitive Silfrastaa, and OIc. hl 'a mountainside, a slope': 'slope by Silfrastair'. The place-name is from the byname silfri 'silver', genitive silfra, and star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'stead(s) of a man called Silfri'.
Locative Byname:

Sreksstair, N.-Ml. (farm)

From the masculine name Srekr, genitive Sreks, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural sto˛um: 'Srek’s stead(s)'. Srekr appears to be a reduced form of an older *Sigrkr.
Locative Byname:

Sjland, Denmark.

Zealand (Danish Sjlland), the largest island in Denmark. On the face of it this is 'sea-land', from OIc. sjr 'the sea' and land 'land (as opposed to sea); a country'. However, the name is found earlier as Selund, and it seems likely that the original sense was 'abounding in seals', from PGmc. *selxa-wunī: *selxa- is the source of OIc. selr 'a seal', and the OIc. suffix -und from *-wunī 'abounding in' is found in a number of island names. (I can find no adequate justification for the alternative interpretation of *selxa- preferred here and mentioned here.)
Locative Byname:

Sjnafjo˛rr, Norway. (fjord)

Apparently from OIc. sjn 'sight, eyesight', genitive plural sjna, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet', perhaps for a straight, broad fjord down which one could see for a considerable distance.
Locative Byname:

Skagafjo˛rr, Skag. (fjord)

From OIc. skagi 'a low cape or ness', genitive skaga, and fjo˛ 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'; it runs along the eastern side of the Skagi peninsula.
Locative Byname:

Skagastro˛nd, Hnv. (stretch of coast)

From OIc. skagi 'a low cape or ness', genitive skaga, and stro˛nd 'strand, coast, shore'; it lies on the western side of the Skagi peninsula.
Locative Byname:

Skagi, Hnv.

OIc. skagi 'a low cape or ness'; the name refers to the northern part of the peninsula separating Hnafli and Skagafjo˛rr.
Locative Byname:

Skl, Skaft. (farm)

OIc. skl 'a bowl', i.e., 'a hollow'.
Locative Byname:

Sklabrekka, rn. (farm)

From OIc. skli 'a shieling: a hut or shed put up for temporary use', genitive skla, and brekka 'a slope': 'shieling’s slope', i.e., a slope on which a shieling had been erected.
Locative Byname:

Sklafell (Skalla-), rn. (farm)
–– Skaft. (farm)

From OIc. skli 'a shieling: a hut or shed put up for temporary use', genitive skla, and fell 'an isolated hill': 'shieling’s hill', an isolated hill with a shieling. The one in rn. also appears as Skallafell, as if from skalli 'a bald head', genitive skalla; this element does occur in other place-names, probably as a rule from the byname of an owner, but here it’s probably an error: Landnmabk says that Inglfr, reputedly the first settler in Iceland, had a shieling built there. Whether the story is true or merely an ex post fact explanation, it suggests that Skla- is the correct form.
Locative Byname: Sklafelli, at Sklafelli

Sklaholt, rn. (farm)

From OIc. skli 'a shieling: a hut or shed put up for temporary use', genitive skla, and holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge': 'shieling’s wood or ridge', a wood or ridge, probably the former, with a shieling.
Locative Byname: Sklaholti

Sklamrr, Skag. (meadow)

From OIc. skli 'a shieling: a hut or shed put up for temporary use', genitive skla, and mrr 'a bog, a swamp, a mire': 'shieling’s bog', i.e., a boggy place with a shieling.
Locative Byname:

Sklanes, Bar. (ness)

From OIc. skli 'a shieling: a hut or shed put up for temporary use', genitive skla, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'shieling’s ness', a headland with a shieling.
Locative Byname:

Sklavk, sfj. (inlet)

From OIc. skli 'a shieling: a hut or shed put up for temporary use', genitive skla, and vk 'an inlet, a small bay': 'shieling’s inlet', an inlet where a shieling had been erected.
Locative Byname:

Skldskelmisdalr, Borg. (valley)

From OIc. skld 'a skald, a poet', skelmir 'a rogue, a rascal, a devil', genitive skelmis, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'skald-rogue’s valley'. Skalds enjoyed a mixed reputation; cf. Hallfrer vandraskld 'difficult or troublesome skald' and Gunnlaugr ormstunga 'serpent-tongue', the latter noted for his derogatory poems. This skald, however, has not been identified.
Locative Byname:

Skli, S.-Ml.: see jreksskli.

Skallanes, Snf.

From OIc. skalli 'a bald head', genitive skalla, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'bald-head’s ness', probably from someone’s byname. According to Landnmabk it was the site of the burial mound of rlfr blo˛ruskalli 'bladder-pate'.
Locative Byname:

Sklmarkelda, Snf. (bog)

From OIc. sklm 'one prong of something cleft in two; a short sword', genitive sklmar, and kelda 'a well, a spring; a bog, a quagmire'. Landnmabk interprets the name as 'Skld’s bog', after a mare named Sklm (genitive Sklmar) that is supposed to have died there, but this has the look of an explanation after the fact; perhaps the first element refers in some way to the local topography. (For more on the mare Sklm see Skalmarnes.)
Locative Byname:

Sklmarnes, Bar. (ness)

From OIc. sklm 'one prong of something cleft in two; a short sword', genitive sklmar, and nes 'a ness, a headland'. Landnmabk interprets the name as 'Skld’s ness', after a mare named Sklm, but the story is quite fantastic and seems designed to explain the name after the fact:

Grmr ht mar Ingjaldsson, Hraldssonar r Haddingjadal, brir sa bersis. Hann fr til slands landaleit ok sigldi fyrir noran landit. Hann var um vetrinn Grmsey Steingrmsfiri. Bergds ht kona hans, en rir sonr eira.

Grmr reri til fiska um haustit me hskarla sna, en sveinninn rir l stafni ok var selbelg, ok dreginn at hlsinum. Grmr dr marmennil, ok er hann kom upp, spuri Grmr: Hva spr oss um forlo˛g vr, ea hvar skulum vr byggja slandi?

Marmennill svarar: Ekki arf ek at sp yr, en sveininum, er liggr selbelginum. Hann skal ar byggja ok land nema, er Sklm, merr yur, leggsk undir klyfjum.

Ekki fengu eir fleiri or af honum. En sar um vetrinn reru eir Grmr sv, at sveinninn var landi. tndusk eir allir.

au Bergds ok rir fru um vrit r Grmsey ok vestr yfir heii til Breiafjarar. gekk Sklm fyrir ok lagisk aldri. Annan vetr vru au Sklmarnesi Breiafiri, en um sumarit eptir sneru au sur. gekk enn Sklm fyrir, ar til er au kmu af heium sur til Borgarfjarar, ar sem sandmelir tveir rauir stu fyrir. ar lagisk Sklm nir undir klyfjum undir inum ytra melnum. ar nam rir land fyrir sunnan Gnp til Kaldr fyrir nean Knappadal milli fjalls ok fjo˛ru. Hann bj at Rauamel inum ytra. Hann var ho˛fingi mikill.

There was a man named Grmr, son of Ingjaldr the son of Hraldr from Haddingjadalr, brother of si bersir. He went to Iceland on a voyage of exploration and sailed north of the land. During the winter he was at Grmsey in Steingrmsfjo˛rr. His wife was named Bergds, and their son, rir.

In the fall Grmr rowed out to fish with his farmhand, and the lad rir lay ill in the bow in a sealskin. Grmr caught a merman, and when he came up, Grmr asked: ‘What do you prophesy for us concerning our fate, or where we should settle in Iceland?’

The merman answers: ‘I don’t need to prophesy for you, but for the lad who lies in the sealskin. He shall take land and settle in the place where Sklm, your mare, lies down under its packs.’

They got no more words from him. And later in the winter Grmr and his men rowed out leaving the lad on land, and they all perished.

In the spring Bergds and rir travelled from Grmsey west across the heath to Breiafjo˛rr, and Sklm went ahead and never lay down. The next winter they were at Sklmarnes in Breiafjo˛rr, and the following summer they turned south. And Sklm still went ahead, until they came off the heath south towards Bjorgarfjo˛rr, in the place where two red sandbanks stood forth. There Sklm lay down under her packs below the outer sandbank. There rir took land south of Gnp to Kald below Knappadalr between fell and fore-shore (i.e., all of the low-lying land from the coast back to the hills). He lived at Rauamelr inn ytri. He was a great chieftain.

Perhaps the first element originally had topographical significance.
Locative Byname:

Skney, Borg. (farm)

Uncertain. Skney is also the OIc. name of Scania (Skne), the southernmost province of Sweden; however, the two names may not have the same etymology, and in any case that of the Swedish name is itself quite uncertain. On the face of it, the Icelandic place-name is from OIc. skn 'a film, a crust' and ey 'an island'; since the farm lies at the southern edge of an 'island' of firm land surrounded by marshy areas, this may indeed be the etymology.
Locative Byname: at Skney(ju), Skney

Skapt, Skaft. (large river)

From OIc. skapt 'a shaft (e.g., of a lance), a shaft-shaped object' and 'a river': 'shaft river'. The reason for the name is not clear to me.
Locative Byname:

Skaptafellsing, Skaft.

From the place-name Skaptafell, genitive Skaptafells, and OIc. ing 'an assembly, a meeting, especially for purposes of legislation'; Skaptafellsing is where the ing for the Skaptafell region was held. The second element of the name Skaptafell is fell 'an isolated hill', but the first is a bit problematic. On the face of it we have the genitive, skapta, of skapti, a byname derived from skapt 'a shaft (e.g., of a spear)', perhaps for a tall, slender person, so that the place-name is 'Skapti’s hill'. It’s possible, however, that Skapta- was originally Skaptr-, the genitive of the river-name Skapt, making the name something like 'isolated hill by the river Skapt'.
Locative Byname:

Skaptaholt, rn. (farm)

The second element is OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge'. According to Landnmabk, the first settler here was ormr skapti leifs son, whose byname is a derivative of skapt 'a shaft (e.g., of a spear)', perhaps for a tall, slender person; skapta is the genitive, and the place-name is 'Skapti’s wood'.
Locative Byname: Skaptaholti

Skar, Dal. (ravine)
–– (= Svignaskar), Mr. (farm)
–– it eystra, Rang. (farm)
–– Skaft. (farm)

OIc. skar 'a mountain pass, a notch'; it eystra is 'the (more) eastern'. The one in Mr. is now Svignaskar; Svigna is the genitive of Svignir, a variant of Sygnir 'people from Sogn (Norway)'. Sogn was originally the name of what is now Sognefjorden, the longest fjord in Norway, whence it was transferred to the surrounding region; it derives from OWScand. sga 'to suck', presumably referring to the strong current. (NSL s.n. Sogn)
Locative Byname: Skari, Skarinu eystra, Skari inu eystra, at Skari

Skarsbrekka, Skaft. (farm)

From OIc. skar 'a mountain pass, a notch', genitive skars, and brekka 'a slope'; the second element also appears in the plural, brekkur.
Locative Byname: undir Skarsbrekku (singular form), undir Skarsbrekkum (plural form)

Skarfanes, Rang. (farm)

From OIc. skarfr 'a cormorant', genitive plural skarfa, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'cormorants’ ness'.
Locative Byname:

Skarfsnes, Borg.(?) (farm)

From OIc. skarfr 'a cormorant', genitive singular skarfs, and nes 'a ness, a headland': 'cormorant’s ness'.
Locative Byname: Skarfsnesi

Skeggjastair, Kjs. (farm)
–– N.-Ml. (1) (farm)
–– N.-Ml. (2) (farm)

'Skeggi’s stead(s)', from the masculine byname skeggi, genitive skeggjar, and star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair. Skeggi is a derivative of skegg 'a beard'; presumably it was applied to someone with an especially shaggy or otherwise notable beard. (It is also a common noun meaning 'a man', but that seems unlikely in a place-name.) The farm in Kjs. apparently took its name from rr skeggi Hrapps son.
Locative Byname: Skeggjasto˛um

Skei, rn. (region)

OIc. skei 'a race, a run; a race-course'; this is that name of a region that appears to be relatively flat and suitable for gatherings.
Locative Byname:

Skeisbrekkur, Dal. (precipice)

From OIc. skei 'a race, a run; a race-course', genitive skeis, and brekka 'a slope', here in the plural brekkur: 'race-course’s slopes'.
Locative Byname:

Skeljabrekka, Borg. (farm)

From OIc. skel 'a shell (flat or spoon-shaped, as opposed to whorled)', genitive plural skelja, and brekka 'a slope': 'shells’ slope'.
Locative Byname: Skeljabrekku, at Skeljabrekku

Skadalr, Eyfj. (side valley)

From the masculine name Ski, genitive Ska, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'Ski’s valley'.
Locative Byname: r Skadal, older r Skadali

Skastair, Hnv. (farm)

From the masculine name Ski, genitive Ska, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Ski’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: af Skasto˛um

Skjaldabjarnarvk, Strand. (inlet and farm)

'Skjalda-Bjo˛rn’s inlet', from OIc. vk 'a small bay, an inlet' and Skjalda-Bjarnar, the genitive of the masculine name Skjalda-Bjo˛rn, the original settler in the area. According to Landnmabk, he acquired the byname Skjalda- when he sailed into Bjarnarfjo˛rr with his ship alskjaldat 'closely set with shields' (literally 'all-shielded').
Locative Byname: Skjaldabjarnarvk

Skjaldey, Dal. (island)

Apparently 'shield island', from OIc. skjo˛ldr 'a shield', stem skald-, and ey 'an island'. According to Landnmabk, when Einarr sklaglamm Helga son drowned at Einarssker, his cloak washed up at Feldarhlmr 'cloak’s holm', and his shield washed up here. This has the look of an explanation made up after the fact to explain the name.
Locative Byname:

Skjlfandafljtsss, ing. (river-mouth)

From the river-name Skjlfandafljt, genitive Skjlfandafljts, and OIc. ss 'mouth or outlet of a river or lake': 'mouth of the Skjlfandafljt'. The river empties into the bay Skjlfandi.
Locative Byname:

Skjlfandi, ing. (bay)

A large bay. OIc. skjlfandi 'shivering, shaking', the present participle of skjlfa 'to shiver, to shake, to quiver'; the present participle can also be used as an agent noun, so 'shaker' is also a possible sense. The reason for the name is not apparent: there is considerable seismic activity in the area, but it is not very noticeable.
Locative Byname:

Skjlgdals, Eyfj. (river)

It is likely that Skjlgr, genitive Skjlgs, is an old river-name; Skjlgsdalr, genitive Skjlgsdals, would then be 'Skjlg’s valley', from OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale'. The last element is OIc. 'a river', and Skjlgdals would then be a later name for the hypothetical Skjlgr. As an adjective skjlgr is 'crooked, lopsided, oblique; cross-eyed'; as a river-name it would have meant something like 'the one that twists and turns' (cf. Rang).
Locative Byname:

Skjo˛ldlfsnes, S.-Ml. (ness)

From the masculine name Skjo˛ldlfr, genitive Skjo˛ldlfs, and OIc. nes 'a ness, a headland': 'Skjo˛ldlf’s ness'.
Locative Byname:

Skjo˛ldlfsstair, N.-Ml. (farm)

From the masculine name Skjo˛ldlfr, genitive Skjo˛ldlfs, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair: 'Skjo˛ldlf’s stead(s)'.
Locative Byname: Skjo˛ldlfssto˛um

Skgahverfi, Skaft. (region)

From OIc. skgr 'a wood, a forest', genitive plural skga, and hverfi 'a cluster of farms': 'cluster of farms by the woods'. The modern name is Sa.
Locative Byname: Skgahverfi

Skgar inir eystri, Rang. (farm)
–– Bar. (farm)

Skgar is the plural of OIc. skgr 'a wood, a forest'; inir eystri is 'the (more) eastern', making it 'the eastern woods'. Note in connection with the bynames that inum eystrum is usually omitted even when the reference is to the one in Rang.
Locative Byname: Skgum (inum eystrum)

Skgarstro˛nd, Snf. (district)

'Wood’s strand', from OIc. skgr 'a wood, a forest', genitive skgar, and stro˛nd 'strand, coast, shore'.
Locative Byname:

Skorradalr, Borg. (valley)

'Skorri’s valley', from the masculine name Skorri, genitive Skorra, and OIc. dalr 'a valley, a dale'. Landnmabk associates the place with one of two Irish thralls of Ketill gufa rlygs son named Skorri; the name was rare and was probably originally a byname meaning 'loud, noisy; quarrelsome'.
Locative Byname: Skorradal, earlier Skorradali

Skorraey, Mr. (island)

'Skorri’s island', from the masculine name Skorri, genitive Skorra, and OIc. ey 'an island'. Landnmabk associates the place with one of two Irish thralls of Ketill gufa rlygs son named Skorri; the name was rare and was probably originally a byname meaning 'loud, noisy; quarrelsome'.
Locative Byname: Skorraey(ju)

Skorraholt, Borg. (farm)

'Skorri’s wood', from the masculine name Skorri, genitive Skorra, and OIc. holt 'a wood, a copse; a rough, stony hill or ridge'. Landnmabk associates the place with one of two Irish thralls of Ketill gufa rlygs son named Skorri; the name was rare and was probably originally a byname meaning 'loud, noisy; quarrelsome'.
Locative Byname: Skorraholti

Skorravk, Dal. (farm)

Apparently 'Skorri’s inlet', from the rare masculine name Skorri, genitive Skorra, and OIc. vk 'an inlet, a small bay'.
Locative Byname: Skorravk

Skotland

Scotland.
Locative Byname:

Skrmuhlaups: see Skraumuhlaups.

Skrattafell, ing. (farm)

From OIc. skratti 'a wizard, a warlock; a goblin, a monster' and fell 'an isolated hill': 'goblin’s hill' or 'wizard’s hill', probably the former.
Locative Byname: undir Skrattafelli

Skraumuhlaups, Dal. (river)

The river is now simply the Skrauma. According to a folk tale of unknown age, a troll woman named Skrauma (genitive Skraumu) once leaped over the river; both the leap and the place where it supposedly occurred would be Skraumuhlaup 'Skrauma’s leap', from OIc. hlaup 'a leap', genitive hlaups, and the place-name would be interpreted as 'Skrauma’s leap’s river', from 'a river'. It seems likely that the name predates the story. Possibly Skrauma was actually the original name, and the river was renamed Skraumuhlaups after a notable flood: hlaup can also mean a sudden rise in a river. The etymology of Skrauma is’t clear; it may be related to Ic. skraumur and skraumi, both 'a braggart, a boaster', for a loud, fast-flowing river.
Locative Byname:

Skrinisenni (Skriinsenni), Strand. (promontory)

The second element is OIc. enni 'a steep cliff, a precipice'. The first appears both as Skrinis- and as Skriin; I see no way to make grammatical sense out of the latter, but skrinis is the genitive of skrinir 'crawler, creeper', which at least in Ic. is a name for the arctic willow, a tiny creeping willow.
Locative Byname:

Skriudalr, S.-Ml. (valley)

From OIc. skria 'a landslip, an avalanche', genitive skriu, and dalr 'a valley, a dale': 'landslip’s valley'.
Locative Byname:

Skrey (Skrr), S.-Ml. (island)

OIc. ey is 'an island', but the rest of the name is a bit of a puzzle. It appears to be related to skr 'tackle, gear; ornament, apparel'; perhaps the second sense is involved, since at least today the island is mostly covered with with grass, which looks a bit like a green 'coat'. The modern name is Skrur, the modern form of Skrr.
Locative Byname:

Skfslkr, rn. (brook)

'Skf’s brook', from the masculine name Skfr, genitive Skfs, and OIc. lkr 'a rivulet, a brook'.
Locative Byname:

Skuggabjo˛rg, ing. (cliffs and rocky area)

From OIc. skuggi 'shade, shadow; a shadow; a shade, a spectre', genitive skugga, and bjarg 'a boulder, a (large) rock', here in the plural bjo˛rg 'precipices, especially by the sea'. It appears that the cliffs face the north on the north coast of Iceland and would therefore normally be in shadow.
Locative Byname:

Sklastair, Gullbr. (farm)

'Skli’s stead(s)', from the masculine name Skli, genitive Skla, and OIc. star 'a place, a stead', here in the plural stair.
Locative Byname: Skulasto˛um

Skutilsfjrr, safj. (fjord)

From OIc. skutill 'a missile, especially a harpoon', genitive skutils, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet': 'harpoon’s fjord'. Helgi Hrlfs son is supposed to have given the fjord its name when he found there skutil flarmli 'a harpoon at the water’s edge'. The modern name is Skutulsfjrur.
Locative Byname:

Skr, ing. (farm)

The plural of OIc. skar 'a notch; a mountain pass'. In at least one version the farm is called Sko˛ruvk, where vk is 'an inlet, a small bay'.
Locative Byname: Sko˛rum, Sko˛uvk

Sko˛tufjo˛rr, safj. (fjord)

'Skate’s fjord', from OIc. skata 'a skate, a ray (the fish)', genitive sko˛tu, and fjo˛rr 'a fjord, a firth, an inlet'.
Locative Byname:


Cross-reference not yet available.
Last modified 15 January 2010.